Planck 2 enables us to calculate the diffusion constant of dissolved electrolytes.
If, however, no porous division be used to prevent the intermingling by diffusion of the anode and cathode solutions, a complicated set of subsidiary reactions takes place.
Cumont), the wide diffusion of the Mithraic religion and the close analogies between its doctrines and those of Christianity.
Two typical forms are in use; in one a liquid is prepared in which the crystal freely swims, the density of the liquid being ascertained by the pycnometer or other methods; in the other a liquid of variable density, the so-called "diffusion column," is prepared, and observation is made of the level at which the particle comes to rest.
The Catholic mission has done very good work in what relates to schools, institutes and the diffusion of literature.
According to the molecular theory, diffusion is due to the motion of the molecules of the dissolved substance through the liquid.
By taking advantage of the different rates of diffusion of the two gases; the solubility of air in water corresponds with the "law of partial pressures," each gas being absorbed in amount proportional to its pressure and coefficient of absorption, and oxygen being much more soluble than nitrogen (in the ratio of 04114 to 02035 at o°); air expelled from water by boiling is always richer in oxygen.
Far more interesting as explaining the diffusion and the religious and social importance of his doctrine is his conception of the second and third ages.
The evidence, however, is not sufficiently strong to warrant a universal conclusion, the diffusion of cholera appearing to be largely dependent upon other factors than soil states.
Gold had fallen still further from the diffusion of the Persian treasure, and Alexander struck in both metals on the Attic standard, leaving their relation to adjust itself by the state of the market.
Again, many facts in the occurrence and diffusion of enteric fever point to an intimate connexion between its origin and certain conditions of locality.
They are without stomata on their submerged portions, and the entry of gases can only take place by diffusion from the water through their external cells, which are not cuticularized.
The latter ultimately reaches the external air by diffusion through the stomata, whose dimensions vary in proportion as the amount of water in the epidermal cells becomes greater or less.
There is also a corresponding diffusion o f Japanese and Chinese forms along this zone, these being most numer - ous in the eastern Himalaya, and less frequent in the west.
They afford, therefore, most striking evidence of a widespread diffusion of Babylonian culture.
Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in1892-1902was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards.
On the other hand, the commodities which poured into Venice and Genoa from the East had to find a route for their diffusion through Europe.
There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.
This reflection is suggested by the following articles: Aether; Molecule; Capillary Action; Diffusion; Radiation, Theory Of; and others.
Considered thermodynamically, voltaic cells must be divided into reversible and non-reversible systems. If the slow processes of diffusion be ignored, the Daniell cell already described may be taken as a type of a reversible cell.
In the case of nonelectrolytes and of all non-ionized molecules this analogy completely represents the facts, and the phenomena of diffusion can be deduced from it alone.
For the record and diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, universities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity, issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of yearbooks and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is organized and made accessible.
In Louisiana diffusion is successfully worked on two or three large estates; but the general body of planters are shy of using it, although there is no lack of water, the Mississippi being near at hand.
The diffusion cells are closed, vertical, cylindrical vessels, holding generally 60 hectolitres, or 1320 gallons, and are arranged in batteries of 12 to 14.
How great was the popularity and diffusion of this letter may be judged in some degree from the fact that Zarncke in his treatise on Prester John gives a list of close on 100 MSS.
Ionia (197); while the coinage of Aegina, (17, 12), which by its wide diffusion made this unit best known, though a few of its earliest staters go up even to 207, yet is characteristically on the lower of the two groups which we recognize in Egypt, and thus started what has been considered the standard value of 194, or usually 190, decreasing afterwards to 184.
The type of the grouping is not alike in different places, showing that no distinct families had arisen before the diffusion of this unit in Egypt; but the usual range is 65.5 to 69.0.
He rightly insisted on the facilities of communication created by the Roman empire, but did not emphasize the diffusion of Judaism.
1 Its methods were stated to be: " To afford information to every country capable of producing cotton, both by the diffusion of printed directions for its cultivation, and sending competent teachers of cotton planting and cleaning, and by direct communication with Christian missionaries whose aid and co - operation it solicits; to supply, gratuitously, in the first instance, the best seeds to natives in every part of the world who are willing to receive them; to give prizes for the extended cultivation of cotton; and The Association published a weekly paper known as The Cotton Supply Reporter.
In this manner the diffusion constant can be calculated in absolute units (HC1= 2.49, HN03 = 2.27, NaC1=1.12), the unit of time being the day.
By experiments on diffusion this constant has been found by Scheffer, and the numbers observed agree with those calculated (HC1= 2.30, HNO 3 = 2 22, NaCI = I II).
The difference of potential between two solutions of a substance at different concentrations can be calculated from the equations used to give the diffusion constants.
None of the colossal structures hitherto described appears to have been erected by the present Melanesian or Polynesian peoples, while their wide diffusion, extending as far as Easter Island, within 400 m.
The difference in technical methods and the historical evolution of teaching posts (for in all civilized countries the progress of biological knowledge has been very closely associated with the existence of institutions for the diffusion of knowledge and for professional education) have been the chief contributory causes to this practical confusion.
Diffusion with 25% dilution..
0 „ triple to /o „ diffusion with 25% To prevent the serious loss of juice left in the megass by even the best double and triple crushing, maceration or imbibition was introduced.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water.
Standard Chinese soon became easier to understand than archaic Japanese, as the former alone was taught in the schools, and the native language changed rapidly during the century or two that followed the diffusion of the foreign tongue and civilization (CnAMBERLAIN).
At the same time, the diffusion of these compounds into contact with the cathode leads to a partial reduction to chloride, by the removal of combined oxygen by the instrumentality of the hydrogen there evolved.
It would seem, indeed, that any process by which the particles of two metals are intimately mingled and brought into close contact, so that diffusion of one metal into the other can take place, is likely to result in the formation of an alloy.
In the two preceding periods the rapid diffusion of literary culture following the Social War and the first Civil War was seen to awaken into new life the elements of original genius in Italy and Cisalpine Gaul.
The important part played by the residual air in the globe had also been deduced by Osborne Reynolds from observing that on turning off the light, the vanes came to rest very much sooner than the friction of the pivot alone would account for; in fact, the rapid subsidence is an illustration of Maxwell's great theoretical discovery that viscosity in a gas (as also diffusion both of heat and of the gas itself) is sensibly independent of the density.
2 Its diffusion far beyond Palestine, and in circles least accessible to such ideas, is proved by the fact that Philo himself (De praem.
The years of his pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of those ultramontane ideas which were ultimately formulated, under the presidency of his successor Pius IX., by the council of the Vatican.
In illustration of the very slow diffusion of heat in the solid crust of the earth, and as affording a further indication of the climate of northern Asia, reference may here be made to the frozen soil of Siberia, in the vicinity of Yakutsk.
In the diffusion of this discovery he was much aided by Jacques Ignace Hittorff.
The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion, and a Cistercian.
In the "diffusion column" method, a liquid column uniformly varying in density from about 3.3 to I is prepared by pouring a little methylene iodide into a long test tube and adding five times as much benzene.
For the history of its genesis and its diffusion the reader may consult D'Ancona, La leggenda di Vergogna e la leggenda di Giuda (1869), and papers by W.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.