Arabi, after a brief fall from office, acquired a dictatorial power that alarmed the British government.
Although the authority of the president is carefully defined and limited by the Constitution, the exercise of dictatorial powers has been so common that the executive may be considered practically supreme and irresponsible.
In 1835, with the title of governor and captain general, he acquired dictatorial powers, and all public authority passed into his hands.
In December 1824 Bolivar convoked a constituent congress for the February following; but this body, taking into consideration the unsettled state of the country, thought it proper to invest him with dictatorial power for another year.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
The duchess, herself aggrieved by the dictatorial manners of the cardinal, likewise urged upon her brother the necessity of the retirement of the unpopular minister.
The prince now took up his permanent residence at Delft, and a regular government was established, in which he exercised almost dictatorial authority.
He used the dictatorial powers with which he was invested to place himself above the law, resuming in his person the state-machinery which had preceded him.
His pretensions and his haughty dictatorial manner at last exhausted the tsar's patience, and he was formally deposed and exiled to a monastery.
The party which had set up the Committee of Public Safety was now struck down by the very man who through the Directory inherited by direct lineal descent the dictatorial powers instituted in the spring of 1793 for the salvation of the republic. It remains to add that the suspects in the plot of October 1800 were now guillotined (31st of January 1801), and that two of the plotters closely connected with the affair of Nivose were also executed (21st of April).
On April 3 the Croatian constitution was completely suspended by royal decree, and Cuvaj invested with far-reaching dictatorial powers.
The following years were marked by recurring attempts at revolution, but on the whole Venezuela during the period1830-1846was less disturbed than the neighbouring republic owing to the dominating influence of General Paez, who during the whole of that time exercised practically dictatorial power.
The tenure of the presidential office was for two years, and at every alternate election Guzman Blanco was declared to be duly and legally chosen to fill the post of chief magistrate of the republic. In 1889 there was an open revolt against the dictatorial system so long in vogue; and President Rojas Paul, Blanco's locum tenens, was forced to flee the country and take refuge in the Dutch colony of Curacoa.
But the first one appointed, Jacopo dei Gabriella of Gubbio, used his dictatorial powers so ruthlessly that at the end of his year of office no successor was chosen.
Like the other states of South America its constitution provides for popular control of legislation and the execution of the laws through free elections and comparatively short terms of office, but in practice these safeguards are often set aside and dictatorial methods supersede all others.
General Bolivar ruled Peru with dictatorial powers for more than a year, and though there were cabals against him there can be little doubt of his popularity.
Suffice it here to note that, after the crushing defeat of the Peruvian forces at Arica (June 7, 1880) Senor Nicolas de Pierola assumed dictatorial powers, with General Andres Caceres as commander-in-chief, but the defeats at Chorrillos (Jan.
In the preface to it he took occasion to express his approval of Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat of the 2nd of December, - " a fortunate crisis which has set aside the parliamentary system and instituted a dictatorial republic."
Whatever we may think of the political sagacity of such a judgment, it is due to Comte to say that he did not expect to see his dictatorial republic transformed into a dynastic empire, and, next, that he did expect from the Man of December freedom of the press and of public meeting.
The city was not much disturbed by the struggle for independence, but it was afterwards the scene of many a revolution until the dictatorial authority of Porfirio Diaz put an end to petty pronunciamentos and partisan intrigues.
O'Higgins at first tried to maintain his position by calling a congress and obtaining a constitution which invested him with dictatorial powers.
This council did little more than register the decrees of the French commander, who continued to exercise dictatorial power.
At the expiration of this period the president assumed dictatorial powers and remained in office as chief of the executive.
General Alfaro then assumed dictatorial powers as supreme chief of the nation, continuing in this capacity until the 6th of February 1897, on which date he was declared to be elected president of the republic. A series of revolutionary movements against the administration of President Alfaro occurred in the course of the next few years.
A new military law, practically amalgamating the Finnish with the Russian forces, followed in July 1901; Russian officials and the Russian language were forced on Finland wherever possible, and in April 1903 the Russian governor, General Bobrikov, was invested with practically dictatorial powers.
This constitution invested the executive with almost dictatorial powers, and the Conservatives entered upon a long term of office.
While both sides were preparing for extremities, Balmaceda administered the government under dictatorial powers with a congress of his own nomination.
The dictatorial rule of his successor - the returned exile, Thomar - provoked another successful rising on the 7th of April 1851.
After laying down his dictatorial powers, he continued to preside over the Executive Committee till the election of a regular president of the republic. It was expected that the suffrages of France would raise Cavaignac to that position.
Prince Schwarzenberg assumed the government of the empire with dictatorial power; and, in spite of what Palmerston termed his " judicious bottle-holding," the movement he had encouraged and applauded, but to which he could give no material aid, was everywhere subdued.
Since 1876 Bratianu had exercised an almost dictatorial power, and anything like a powerful parliamentary opposition had ceased to exist.
As the constituent assembly which amended the constitution, according to the president's wishes in 1905, was to continue in office until 1908 and to provide laws for the regulation of elections and other public affairs, it appeared that the president would permit no expression of popular dissent to interfere with his purpose to establish a dictatorial regime in Colombia similar to the one in Mexico.
The rising was easily put down; but the condition of the colony was so grave that the ministry decided to suspend the constitution of lower Canada for three years, and to send out Lord Durham with almost dictatorial powers.
A defeat in the parliament when he defended the armistice of Malmo led to his resignation; but he was immediately called to office again, with practically dictatorial power, in order to quell the revolt which broke out in Frankfort on the 18th of September.
But the revolts of the French Protestants, the resentment of the nobles at his dictatorial power, and the perpetual ferment of intrigues and treason in the court, obliged him almost immediately to draw back.
Until he felt sure of the early termination of the struggle with the pretender, he ruled in a dictatorial manner without the assistance of parliament.
General Alfaro, however, appealed to arms, ejected Garcia from office, and made himself ruler with practically dictatorial powers.