Stems. But in nearly all perennial Dicotyledons, in all dicotyledonous and gymnospermous trees and shrubs and in fossil Pteridophytes belonging to all the great groups, certain layers of cells remain meristematic among the permanent tissues, or after passing through a resting stage reacquire menstematic properties, and give rise to secondary tissues.
In dicotyledonous plants the first leaves produced (the cotyledons) are opposite.
Still, the presence of dicotyledonous leaves, such as Magnolia alternans, in the Atanakerdluk strata, proves their close alliance with the Dakota series of the United States.
The work was continued after his death, by his son Alphonse de Candolle, with the aid of other eminent botanists, and embraces descriptions of the genera and species of the orders of Dicotyledonous plants.
Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests.
In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
Among the peculiar dicotyledonous plants there is not a single annual, and by far the greater number are perennial and woody.
The greatest merit of this book is the use of the number of cotyledons as a basis of classification; though it must be remembered that the difference between the monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous embryo was detected by Nehemiah Grew.
Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.
Coalbearing clays containing fresh-water molluscs and dicotyledonous plants, as also conglomerates, alternate with the sandstones in these Tertiary deposits.
It is of interest to note that the leaves of Gnetum, while typically Dicotyledonous in appearance, possess a Gymnospermous character in the continuous and plate-like medullary rays of their vascular bundles.
The leaves, which are borne in pairs at the tumid nodes, are oval in form and have a Dicotyledonous type of venation.
The dense forests of West Africa contain, in addition to a great variety of dicotyledonous trees, two palms, the Elaeis guincensis (oil-palm) and Raphia vinifera (bamboo-palm), not found, generally speaking, in the savanna regions.
In the plant world, the dicotyledonous angiosperms gradually assumed the leading role which they occupy to-day.
I I, Bennettites seed in longitudinal section, showing the dicotyledonous embryo; p, cotyledons; r, radicle; s, testa.
2 of Meek and Hayden) contains Gymnosperms and Ferns of Neocomian types, or even of Neocomian species; but mingled with these occur a few dicotyledonous leaves belonging to four genera.
In Great Britain the whole of the Upper Cretaceous strata are of marine origin, and have yielded no land-plants beyond a few fir-cones, drift-wood and rare Dicotyledonous leaves in the Lower Chalk.
The next strata, the Aquila Creek series, contain a well-marked dicotyledonous flora, in which both the form and nervation of the leaves begin to approximate to those of recent times.
Dicotyledonous leaves are not plentiful, the genera recorded being Andromeda, Cinnamomum, Zizyphus, Rhus, Viburnum.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
The young tissue of the stelar cylinder, in the case of the modified siphonostele characteristic of the dicotyledonous stem, differs from the adjoining pith and cortex in its narrow elongated cells, a difference produced by the stopping of transverse and the increased frequency of longitudinal divisions.