Such are: (a) Butterfly-flowers, usually red in colour, as Dianthus carthusianorum; (b) Moth-flowers, white or whitish, as honeysuckle (Loniceea periclymenum).
Dianthus chinensis (Indian pink): half-hardy, 6 in.
Dianthus barbatus (Sweet William): hardy, I to I i ft., crimson, purple, white or parti-coloured.
Dianthus chinensis (Indian Pink): half-hardy, I ft., various; flower earlier if treated as biennials; must be protected from frost.
GILLYFLOWER, a popular name applied to various flowers, but principally to the clove, Dianthus Caryophyllus, of which the carnation is a cultivated variety, and to the stock, Matthiola incana, a well-known garden favourite.
The gillyflower of Chaucer and Spenser and Shakespeare was, as in Italy, Dianthus Caryophyllus; that of later writers and of gardeners, Matthiola.
When the flower is sessile the bracts are often applied closely to the calyx, and may thus be confounded with it, as in the order Malvaceae and species of Dianthus and winter aconite (Eranthis), where they have received the name of epicalyx or calyculus.
In some members of the order, as Dianthus barbatus, D.