Arising at intermediate places, and as these will not usually lie exactl y on the direct line, deviations from straightness will be rendered necessary.
This coefficient is sometimes called the " angular coefficient," and may be regarded as a measure of the deviations from Boyle's law, 'which may be most simply expressed at moderate pressures by formulating the variation of the angular coefficient with temperature.
Gassendi, with some deviations, follows Epicurus in his theory of the formation of the world.
Limit of the forests, which closely follows the coastline, with deviations towards the N.
Whatever the specific rotation, there may in practice be deviations from the plan of retaining on the farm the whole of the root-crops, the straw of the grain crops and the leguminous fodder crops (clover, vetches, sainfoin, &c.) for the production of meat or milk, and, coincidently, for that of manure to be returned to the land.
Such deviations from the practice of merely selling grain and meat off the farm have much extended in recent years, and will probably continue to do so under the altered conditions of British agriculture, determined by very large imports of grain, increasing imports of meat and of other products of stock-feeding, and very large imports of cattle-food and other agricultural produce.
It is apparent that the law of Dulong and Petit is not rigorously true, and that deviations are observed which invalidate the law as originally framed.
But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.
Taking the refractive index of water for the red rays as 0;, and for the violet rays as 1 r, we can calculate the following values for the minimum deviations corresponding to certain assigned values of n.
Deviations of Actual Gases from the Ideal State.
- Since no gas is ideally perfect, it is most important for practical purposes to discuss the deviations of actual gases from the ideal state, and to consider how their properties may be thermodynamically explained and defined.
The most natural method of procedure is to observe the deviations from Boyle's law by measuring the changes of pv at various constant temperatures.
But owing to the large thermal capacity of his calorimeter, the test, though sufficient for his immediate purpose, was not delicate enough to detect and measure the small deviations which actually exist.
Trans., 1854, 1862) found that the cooling effect, do, was of the same order of magnitude as the deviations from Boyle's law in each case, and that it was proportional to the difference of pressure, dp, so that d0/dp was nearly constant for each gas over a range of pressure of five or six atmospheres.
Soc. Ed., 1854) to represent Regnault's experiments on the deviations of CO 2 from.
The simplest assumption which suffices to express the small deviations of gases and vapours from the ideal state at moderate pressures is that the coefficient a in the expression for the capillary pressure varies inversely as some power of the absolute temperature.
The value of the co-aggregation volume, c, at any temperature, assuming equation (17), may be found by observing the deviations from Boyle's law and by experiments on the Joule-Thomson effect.
Zeuner's formula for steam), but they cannot be made to represent with sufficient approximation the deviations from the ideal state at moderate pressures and generally lead to erroneous results.
Throughout his long professorial career, and in all his numerous publications he remained, in spite of occasional deviations on particular points, loyal to the Hegelian tradition as a whole.
The proper treatment of the deviations from mathematical accuracy, in the second and third of the above classes of cases, is a special matter.
In order to find the amount of dispersion caused by any given prism, the deviations produced by it on two rays of any definite pure colours may be measured.
The angle of difference between these deviations is called the dispersion for those rays.
If 6 F and Sc are the angular deviations of these rays, then S F - Sc is called the mean dispersion of the prism.
Deviations from the strict Cistercian type.
The Garton artificial fertilization experiments have shown endless deviations from the ordinary type, ranging from minute seeds with a closely adhering husk to big berries almost as large as sloes and about as worthless.
Amongst the legitimate reasons for suspecting the correctness of a text are patent contradictions in a passage or its immediate neighbourhood, proved and inexplicable deviations from the standards for forms, constructions and usages (mere rarity or singularity is not enough), weak and purposeless repetitions of a word (if there is no reason for attributing these to the writer), violations of the laws of metre and rhythm as observed by the author, obvious breaks in the thought (incoherence) or disorderly sequence in the same (double or multiple incoherence).
Having witnessed the unjust exactions of a democracy at Athens, the dwindling population of an oligarchy at Sparta, and the oppressive selfishness of new tyrannies throughout the Greek world, he condemned the actual constitutions of the Greek states as deviations (7rapec- (3do as) directed merely to the good of the government; and he contemplated a right constitution (607) 7roAtTeia), which might be either a commonwealth, an aristocracy or a monarchy, directed to the general good; but he preferred the monarchy of one man, pre-eminent in virtue above the rest, as the best of all governments (Nicomachean Ethics, viii.
Deviations (7rapecfMo - ecs), aiming at the good of the government: i.
If an iron ship be swung when upright for deviation, and the mean horizontal and vertical magnetic forces at the compass positions be also observed in different parts of the world, mathematical analysis shows that the deviations are caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by the transient induced magnetism of soft iron both horizontal and vertical, and in a lesser degree by iron which is neither magnetically hard nor soft, but which becomes magnetized in the same manner as hard iron, though it gradually loses its magnetism on change of conditions, as, for example, in the case of a ship, repaired and hammered in dock, steaming in an opposite direction at sea.
Instead of observing the deviation solely for the purposes of correcting the indications of the compass when disturbed by the iron of the ship, the practice is to subject all deviations to mathematical analysis with a view to their mechanical correction.
The whole of the deviations when the ship is upright may be expressed nearly by five co-efficients, A.
When data of this character have been obtained the compass deviations may be mechanically corrected to within i° - always adhering to the principal that "like cures like."
The deflector is an instrument designed to enable an observer to reduce the deviations of the compass to an amount not exceeding 2 0 during fogs, or at any time when bearings of distant objects are not available.
See also Magnetism, and Navigation; articles on Magnetism of Ships and Deviations of the Compass, Phil.
1862- 1863-1869 -1893-1900; and Towson's Practical Information on Deviations of the Compass (1886).
This result is very nearly correct, the deviations being so small as to be almost beyond the reach of direct measurement.
He went on to deal with the case of projectiles, and was led to the conclusion that the motion in this case could be regarded as the result of superposing a horizontal motion with uniform velocity and a vertical motion with constant acceleration, the latter identical with that of a merely falling body; the inference being that the path of a projectile would be a parabola except for deviations attributed to contact with the air, and that in a vacuum this path would be accurately followed.
But the deviations from the Biblical narratives are very marked.
Some deviations from the usual course of development may be noted.
1 and 2 may be taken as examples of three common forms of series into which the individuals of a race may be arranged with respect to a single character; a comparison of them will show how little can be learnt from a mere statement of racial type, without some knowledge of the way in which deviations from the type are distributed.
It appears that the relatively enormous deviations of CaC1 2 from Raoult's law are accounted for on the hypothesis that a=9, but there is a slight uncertainty about the degree of ionization of the strongest solutions at-50° C. Cane-sugar appears to require 5 molecules of water of hydration both at o° C. and at loo° C., whereas KC1 and NaCI take more water at loo° C. than at o° C. The cases considered by Callendar (loc. cit.) are necessarily limited, because the requisite data for strong solutions are comparatively scarce.
In order to correct this equation for the deviations of the vapour from the ideal state at higher temperatures and pressures, the simplest method is to assume a modified equation of the Joule-Thomson type (Thermodynamics, equation (17)), which has been shown to represent satisfactorily the behaviour of other gases and vapours at moderate pressures.
Many attempts have been made to construct formulae representing the deviations of vapours from the ideal state up to the critical point.
The deviations from the ideal volume may also be deduced by the method of Joule and Thomson.
It is easy, however, to correct the formula for these deviations, and to make it thermodynamically consistent with the characteristic equation (13) by substituting the appropriate values of (v-w) and L =H -h from equations (13) and (is) in formula (21) before integrating.
In local government there are no deviations from the usual types that demand notice.
It is obvious that the motions of a pair of points may be varied in any manner, whether by direct or by lateral deviation, and yet that their comparative motion may remain constant, in consequence of the deviations taking place in the same proportions, in the same directions and at the same instants for both points.
Energy Stored and Restored by Deviations of Velocity.Thus a body alternately accelerated and retarded, so as to be brought back to its original speed, performs work during its retardation exactly equal in amount to the energy exerted upon it during its acceleration; so that that energy may be considered as stored during the acceleration, and restored during the retardation, in a manner analogous to the operation of a reciprocating force (~ 108).
The energy stored or restored, as the case may be, by the deviations of velocity of a body or a system of bodies, is the amount by which the actual energy is increased or diminished.
By opening the stop wider, similar deviations arise for lateral points as have been already discussed for axial points; but in this case they are much more complicated.
The rays with an angle of aperture smaller than u* would not have the same distance of intersection and the same sine ratio; these deviations are called "zones," and the constructor endeavours to reduce these to a minimum.
Spherical aberration and changes of the sine ratios are often represented graphically as functions of the aperture, in the same way as the deviations of two astigmatic image surfaces of the image plane of the axis point are represented as functions of the angles of the field of view.
In order to render visible the small waves employed, and which we may regard as deviations of a plane surface from its true figure, the method by which Foucault tested reflectors is suitable.
Every division of mankind presents in every character wide deviations from a standard.
On the one hand the Logos is identified with yvkµrt and connected with Slim, which latter seems to have the function of correcting deviations from the eternal law that rules in things.
On the contrary, the deviations made from his theory were, in his opinion, the sole cause of the whole disaster, and with characteristically gleeful sarcasm he would remark, "There, I said the whole affair would go to the devil!"
During the middle ages there were, however, deviations of custom: e.g.