Sand-pumps and bailers are also required to remove detritus, water and oil from the bore-hole.
The coast is low and sandy and is formed by the detritus deposited by the sea current called Calema.
Strong heavy clay soils, sandy and gravelly soils, are almost entirely absent; and the mixture of soil arising from the various stratifications and from the detritus carried down to the plains has created many districts of remarkable richness.
The amount of alluvial matter carried is enormous; from Ruwenzori alone the detritus is very great.
It is often of very mixed origin, being derived from the detritus of many kinds of rocks, and usually forms soil of a fertile character.
As the silt-laden waters debouch from the rocky bed of the upper reaches on to the plains, the current slackens, and the coarser detritus settles on the bottom.
Dean finished dismantling the tree, cleaning up the remaining detritus of the holidays and packing away the delicate figures of a manger scene.
But where the side is not a uniform scarp, but made up of a series of ridges and valleys, the tendency will be to distribute the detritus in an irregular manner, directing it away from one place and collecting it in great masses in another, so that in time the land form assumes a new appearance.
The bed of the great river maintains a fairly constant position between its extreme banks, but the channels within that bed are so constantly shifting as to require close supervision on the part of the navigation authorities; so much detritus is carried down as to form a perpetually changing series of obstructions to steamer traffic.
The geological sequence of events appears to have been the following: - After the deposition of the Eocene (or Oligocene) limestone - which reposes upon a floor of basalts and trachytes - basalts and basic tuffs were ejected, over which, during a period of very slow depression, orbitoidal limestones of Miocene age - which seem to make up the great mass of the island - were deposited; then elapsed a long period of rest, during which the atoll condition existed and the guano deposit was formed; from then down to the present time there has succeeded a series of sea-level subsidences, resulting in the formation of the terraces and the accummulation of the detritus now seen on the first inland cliff, the old submarine slope of the island.
In advance, so as to receive the detritus, which is removed by a shell pump of large size.
The plain of Chih-li is formed principally by detritus deposited by the Pei-ho and its tributary the Hun-ho ("muddy river"), otherwise known as the Yungting-ko, and other streams having their sources in mountains of Shan-si and other ranges.
Hence the proportion of purely oceanic area to the total area is greater in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, the supply of detritus being smaller, and terrigenous deposits are not borne so far from land.
An objection has occasionally been urged against frames lowered on to the bed of a river that they are liable to be covered over by detritus or drift brought down by floods, and consequently are subject to injury or impediments in being raised.
Collema limosum, Peltidea venosa); while many may be found growing on all kinds of soil, from the sands of the sea-shore to the granitic detritus of lofty mountains, with the exception of course of cultivated ground, there being no agrarian lichens.
The most probable explanation is that the Flysch consists of the detritus washed down from the hills upon the flanks of which it was formed.
The spread of these limestones was repeatedly checked by the steady influx of detritus from the land during the pauses in movements of depression.
But in the " Drift " maps many other types of deposit are indicated, such, for instance, as the ordinary modern alluvium of rivers, and the older river terraces (River-drift of various ages), including gravels, brickearth and loam; old raised sea beaches and blown-sand (Aeolian-drift); the " Head " of Cornwall and Devon, an angular detritus consisting of stones with clay or loam; clay-with-flints, rainwash (landwash), scree and talus; the " Warp," a marine and estuarine silt and clay of the Humber; and also beds of peat and diatomite.
Most of the straths and glens have a floor of detritus which, spread out between the bases of the boundary hills, has been levelled into meadow land by the rivers and provides almost the sole arable ground in each district.
Their sides are seamed with torrents which tear down the solid rock and sweep its detritus into the glens and sea lochs.
They are depressions in the valleys, not due to local heaping up of detritus, but true rock-basins, often of great depth.
Indeed, so rapid is the infilling by the torrents which sweep down detritus from the surrounding heights that even the existing lakes are visibly diminishing.
The Lakes of the Plains lie in hollows of the glacial detritus which is strewn so thickly over the lower grounds.
The first part consists of an alluvial, low-lying plain formed in great part by the detritus brought down by the mountain streams. It is irregular in form and is broken by isolated elevations and spurs from the Cordillera.
The Oxus itself is steadilyencroachingon its right banks and depositing detritus on the left.
The chief natural features of the province are thus determined by the main streams, whose alluvial deposits first formed the central portion of the United Provinces; while the currents afterwards cut deep channels through the detritus they brought down from the ring of hills or uplands.
The soil of Oudh consists of a rich alluvial deposit, the detritus of the Himalayan system washed down into the Ganges valley.
By the detritus wash of the hydraulic mines, and that of Sleepy Hollow Creek 136 ft.
Long, sloping gradually toward their centres, are usually covered with detritus from the neighbouring mountains, and seldom have a distinct drainage outlet.
In this hot and thirsty corner of Baluchistan, ruled by the Jam or Cham, there is a fairly wide stretch of cultivation, nourished by the alluvial detritus of the Purali and well irrigated.
Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.
As the Red river valley is the bed of the extinct Lake Agassiz, its soil is composed of the fine detritus and silty deposits carried into the lake by its tributaries.
At Canyon City it passes out of the Rockies through the Grand Canyon of the Arkansas; then turning eastward, and soon a turbid, shallow stream, depositing its mountain detritus, it flows with steadily lessening gradient and velocity in a broad, meandering bed across the prairies and lowlands of eastern Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas, shifting its direction sharply to the south-east in central Kansas.
The floods come in May and June, and during the wet season the rivers, all with steep beds in their upper courses, wash along detritus that lower down narrows, and on smaller streams almost chokes, their courses.
By the rain wash and wind action detritus from the mountains is carried to these valley floors, raising their level, and often burying low mountain spurs, so as to cause neighbouring valleys to coalesce.
If the pores of the water face are thus rendered extremely fine, the surface water, carrying more or less fine detritus and organic matter, will soon close them entirely and assist in making that face the least permeable portion of the structure.
The contrast between the lower grounds of the Western and the Eastern Divisions is masked in many places by the general covering of the surface with glacial drift, which is usually a stiff clay composed on the whole of the detritus of the rocks upon which it rests, though containing fragments of rocks which have been transported from a considerable distance.
The outline of the curve of a valley's sides ultimately depends on the angle of repose of the detritus which covers them, if there has been no subsequent change, such as the passage of a glacier along the v.alley, which tends to destroy the regularity of the crosssection.
The coastal plain consists in great part of sandy beaches, detritus formations, and partially submerged areas caused by uplifted beaches and obstructed river channels.
Between these ridges lie almost level valleys, whose floors consist partly of lava flows, partly of volcanic fragmental material, and partly of detritus from the bordering mountains.
These valleys are generally levelfloored, but at their borders gradually slope upward, and are filled, often to a depth of several thousand feet, with the detritus of gravel, sand and silt from the neighbouring hills.
This wide-spreading loess area was formed partly of wind-blown sand and partly of detritus from the mountains.
Glacial detritus naturally plays a great part in the deposits on the polar continental shelves.