Of the departments of Junin, Ayacucho and Apurimac, and extends from Loreto on the N.
Considerations of this latter kind will naturally present themselves in the two great departments of cosmology and psychology, or they may be delegated to an independent research under the name of religious philosophy.
ARGONNE, a rocky forest-clad plateau in the north-east of France, extending along the borders of Lorraine and Champagne, and forming part of the departments of Ardennes, Meuse and Marne.
If we now endeavour to give a general estimate of Pericles' character and achievements, it will be well to consider the many departments of his activity one by one.
Its main object is to perfect the proficiency of players in certain departments of bowls proper.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
- 829,000, , 21.5 Finistre Gard About two-thirds of the French departments, corn- Gers prising a large proportion of those situated in Gironde mountainous districts and in the basin of the Garonne, Haute-Ga where the birth-rate is especially feeble, show a Haute-Lo Haute-Mi decrease in population.
Below is a list of the 315,993 departments in which the number of women to every 012 460
749,753 Departments from which the adult males emigrate 532,567 regularly either to sea or to seek employment in towns 330,533 tend to fall under the first head, those in which large 188,553 bodies of troops are stationed under the second.
The state, the departments, and the communes were thus relieved from the payment of salaries and grants to religious bodies, an item of expenditure which amounted in the last year of the old system to 1,101,000 paid by the state and 302,200 contributed by the departments and communes.
The greatest number of Jews is to be found at Paris, Lyons and Bordeaux, while the departments of the centre and of the south along the range of the Cvennes, where Calvinism flourishes, are the principal Protestant localities, Nimes being the most important centre.
The value per acre of land, which exceeds 48 in the departments of Seine, Rhne and those fringing the north-west coast from Nord to Manche inclusive, is on the average about 29, though it drops to 16 and less in Morbihan, Landes, Basses-Pyrnes, and parts of the Alps and the central plateau.
Meslin, a mixture of wheat and rye, is produced in the great majority of French departments, but to a marked extent in the basin of the Sarthe.
It is grown largely in the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and in those of the Seine basin, the southern limit of its cultivation being roughly a line drawn from Bordeaux to Lyons.
Flax is cultivated chiefly in the northern departments of Nord, Seine- Infrieure, Pas-de-Calais, Ctes-du-Nord, hemp in Sarthe, Morbihan and Maine-ct-Loire.
Hops cover only about 7000 acres, being almost confined to the departments of Nord, Cte dOr and Meurthe-etMoselle.
With the exception of Loire, Bouches-du-Rhbne and Rhne, the chief industrial departments of France are to be found in the north and north-east of the country.
Loire, antimony from the departments of Mayenne, Haute-Loire and Cantal.
Slate is obtained in large quantities from the departments of Maine-ct-Loire (Angers), Ardennes (Fumay) and Mayenne (Renaz).
Stone-quarrying is specially active in the departments round Paris, Seine-et-Oise employing more persons in this occupation than any other department.
The environs of Creil (Oise) and Chteau-Landon (Seine-et-Marne) are noted for their freestone (pierre de taille), which is also abundant at Euville and Lrouville in Meuse; the production of plaster is particularly important in the environs of Paris, of kaolin of fine quality at Yrieix (1-Jaute-Vienne), of hydraulic lime in Ardche (Le Teil), of lime phosphates in the department of Somme, of marble in the departments of HauteGaronne (St Beat), Hautes-Pyrnes (Campan, Sarrancolin), Isre and Pas-de-Calais, and of cement in Pas-de-Calais (vicinity of Boulogne) and Isre (Grenoble).
Taking the number of hands engaged in the industry as a basis of comparison, the most important departments as regards iron and steel working in 1901 were:
The silk fabrics of France hold the first place, particularly the more expensive kinds.
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
Sugar.The manufacture of sugar is carried on in the departments of the north, in which the cultivation of beetroot is general Aisne, Nord, Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Oise and Seine-et-Marne, the three first being by far the largest producers.
Glass is manufactured in the departments of Nord (Aniche, &c.), Seine, Loire (Rive-de-Gier) and Meurthe-et-Moselle, Baccarat in the latter department being famous for its table-glass.
Fisheries.The fishing population of France is most numerous in the Breton departments of Finisire, Cfltes-du-Nord and Morbihan and in Pas-de-Calais.
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
Local Government.France is divided into 86 administrative departments (including Corsica) or 87 if the Territory of Belfort, a remnant of the Haut Rhin department, be included.
These departments are subdivided into 362 arrondissements.
Departments depending on them.
Departments depending on them.
Besides receiving taxes, they pay the creditors of the state in their departments, conduct all operations affecting departmental loans, buy and sell government stock (rentes) on behalf of individuals, and conduct certain banking operations.
The service in the departments comprises brigades, which are actually engaged in guarding the frontiers, and a clerical staff (service de bureau) entrusted with the collection of the duties.
The chief expenses of the departments are the care of pauper children and lunatics, the maintenance of high-roads and the service of the departmental debt.
Both the departments and the communes have considerable public debts.
In regard to the constitution and maintenance of the naval forces, the administration of the arsenals is divided into three principal departments, the first concerned with naval construction, the second with ordnance, including gun-mountings and small-arms, and the third with the so-called submarine defences, dealing with all torpedo materiel.
The burden of public instructIon in France is shared by the communes, departments and state, while side by side with the public schools of all grades ~re private schools subjected to a state supervision and certain restrictions.
The capitals of these academies, together with the departments included in them, are tabulated below:
Academies Departments included in them.
Subventions from the departments and communes.
Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
The institute comprises an academic department (in which all students are enrolled) with a seven years' course, the Phelps Hall bible training school (1892), with a three years' course, and departments of mechanical industries, industries for girls, and agriculture.
AUVERGNE, formerly a province of France, corresponding to the departments of Cantal and Puy-de-Dome, with the arrondissement of Brioude in Haute-Loire.
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
For purposes of naval organization the Italian coast is divided into three maritime departments, with headquarters at Spezia, Naples and Venice; and into two comandi militari, with headquarters at Taranto and at the island of Maddalena.
Piedmont was organized in six departments on the model of those of France, and a number of French veterans were settled by Napoleon in and near the fortress of Alessandria.
Eight monasteries were expropriated to make room for the chief state departments, pending the construction of more suitable edifices.
Crispi, burdened by the premiership and by the two most important portfolios in the cabinet, was, however, unable to exercise efficient control over all departments of state.
TO THE CHIEFS OF THE DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS
Please favour her with every facility to examine the exhibits in the several Departments, and extend to her such other courtesies as may be possible.
But besides considerations of foreign policy, the attention of Russian society was at that time keenly directed on the internal changes that were being undertaken in all the departments of government.
Just the same as now--I ask you, Count--who will be heads of the departments when everybody has to pass examinations?
Though this news was being concealed from the inhabitants, the officials--the heads of the various government departments--knew that Moscow would soon be in the enemy's hands, just as Count Rostopchin himself knew it, and to escape personal responsibility they had all come to the governor to ask how they were to deal with their various departments.
Departments included in them.