The only timber in ordinary use obtained from the Himalaya proper is the deodar, Cedrus deodara.
The cedar or deodar is hardly indigenous east of the sources of the Ganges, and at about the same point the forms of the west begin to be more abundant, increasing in number as we advance towards Afghanistan.
The grateful perfumed powder abir or rand y is composed either of rice, flour, mango bark or deodar wood, camphor and aniseed, or of sandalwood or wood aloes, and zerumbet, zedoary, rose flowers, camphor and civet.
The genus Cedrus contains two other species closely allied to C. Libani - Cedrus Deodara, the deodar, or "god tree" of the Himalayas, and Cedrus atlantica, of the Atlas range, North Africa.
The deodar forms forests on the mountains of Afghanistan, North Beluchistan and the north-west Himalayas, flourishing in all the higher mountains from Nepal up to Kashmir, at an elevation of from 5500 to 12,000 ft.; on the peaks to the northern side of the Boorung Pass it grows to a height of 60 to 70 ft.
The deodar (Cedrus Deodara), which is indigenous to the mountains of Afghanistan and the north-west Himalaya, is nearly allied to the Atlantic cedar and to the cedar of Lebanon, a form of which is found in Cyprus.
They are built of deodar (II ft.
Deodar (Cedrus Deodara).
The " Deodar" is also much used, but the other pines produce timber that is not durable.
The second class includes tracts of teak, sal or deodar timber and the like, where private or village rights of user are few.
In the Himalayas themselves the deodar and other conifers form the bulk of the timber, while in the lower ranges, such as the Khasi hills in Assam, and those of Burma, various pines are prominent.