A demonstrator of anatomy, and was assistant surgeon to King's College Hospital for several years; and in the autumn of 1847 he was appointed surgeon and lecturer on pathology at his old school, St Thomas's, where, with progressive changes, he continued to remain an officer.
He is known as Rouelle the elder, to distinguish him from his younger brother and assistant, Hilaire Marin (1718-1779), who, on his resignation in 1768, succeeded him as demonstrator at the Jardin du Roi.
At an early age Antoine became botanical demonstrator in the Jardin des Plantes, and was thus led to devote his time to the science of botany.
He started as an apothecary, but in 1742 he was appointed experimental demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, where he was especially influential and popular as a teacher, numbering Lavoisier and J.
His son Louis (1677-1743) was appointed physician at the Hotel Dieu in 1710, and became demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in 1731.