Land held in ancient demesne is sometimes also called customary freehold.
In 1087 the king held the manor of Wendover, and therefore it belonged to the ancient demesne of the crown.
1 The form " demesne " is an Anglo-French spelling of the Old Fr.
To the west of the town lies Woburn Park, the demesne of Woburn Abbey,.
There were special privileges surrounding tenancies of these lands, such as freedom from tolls and duties, exemption from danegeld and amercement, from sitting on juries, &c. Hence, the phrase "ancient demesne" came to be applied to the tenure by which the lands were held.
A portion of the manor, generally about a third, constituted the lord's demesne, which, though sometimes separate, usually consisted of strips intermingled with those of his villeins.
The treatise on husbandry of Walter of Henley, dating from the early 13th century, is very valuable as describing the management of the demesne under the twoor three-field system.
But what the Third Crusade showed most clearly was that the crusading movement was being lost to the papacy, and becoming part of the demesne of the secular state - organized by the state on its own basis of taxation, and conducted by the state according to its own method of negotiation.
The other most notable open spaces wholly or partly within the county are Hampstead Heath in the north-west, a wild, high-lying tract preserved to a great extent in its natural state, and in the south-west Wimbledon Common, Putney Heath and the royal demesne of Richmond Park, which from its higher parts commands a wonderful view up the rich valley of the Thames.
In Domesday it was royal demesne and during the following centuries figures in numerous grants generally as the dowry of queens.
Demesne of the crown, or royal demesne, was that part of the crown lands not granted out to feudal tenants, but which remained under the management of stewards appointed by the crown.
Ancient demesne signified lands or manors vested in the king at the time of the Norman Conquest.
South of the town, but its authentic history begins with the Domesday survey, which relates that the manor had been royal demesne of Edward the Confessor and now paid X10 a year to the Conqueror.
Here, besides the viceregal demesne and lodge and the magazine, are a zoological garden, a people's garden, the Wellington monument, two barracks, the Hibernian military school, the "Fifteen Acres," a natural amphitheatre (of much greater extent than its name implies) used as a review ground, and a racecourse.
He built a new and handsome palace at Drogheda, and he repaired the old disused palace at Armagh and bestowed on it a demesne of 300 acres.
The manor, royal demesne in 1086, was granted by Edmund Plantagenet in 1285 to the house of Ashridge, and the town developed under monastic protection.
Wetzlar was originally a royal demesne, and in the 12th century became a free imperial town.
The demesne of Studley Royal (marquess of Ripon) contains the ruins.
At the conquest Wimborne was a royal borough, ancient demesne of the crown, and part of the manor of Kingston Lacy, which Henry I.
At the time of the Domesday Survey East Looe was assessed under Pendrym, which was of the king's demesne and West Looe under Hamelin's manor of Trelowia.
They weighed especially heavily on the so-called Ugedasmaend, who were forced to work two or three days a week in the demesne lands.
He transferred in fact the fairs and markets from the demesne lands of the Bloyous in Marazion to those of the prior.
The demesne borders the Derwent, and is of great beauty, part being laid out in formal gardens and straight avenues.
The distinction between khalsa land, or the imperial demesne, and jagir lands, granted revenue free or at quit rent in reward for services, also dates from the time of Akbar.
It is also to be noticed that the Domesday Survey constantly mentions the terra villanorum as opposed to the demesne in the estates or manors of the time, and that the land of the rustics is taxed separately for the geld, so that the distinction between the property of the lord and that of the peasant dependent on him is clearly marked and by no means devoid of practical importance.
There was one exception to this harsh treatment of villeins, namely, the rustic tenantry in manors of ancient demesne, that is, in estates which had belonged to the crown before the Conquest, had a standing-ground even against their lords as regards the tenure of their plots and the fixity of their services.
If, however, the two conditions mentioned were forthcoming, villeins, or, as they were technically called, villein socmen of ancient demesne manors, could resist any attempt of their lords to encroach on their rights by depriving them of their holdings or increasing the amount of their customary services.
A number of cases arising from these privileges of the men of ancient demesne are published in the Notebook of Bracton and in the Abbreviatio placitorum.
A material point for the application of the privilege consists in the fact that ancient demesne has to be proved from the time before the Conquest, and this shows clearly that the theory was partly derived from the recognition of tenant right in villeins of the Anglo-Saxon period who, as we have said above, were mostly ceorls, that is, freeborn men.
In the course of these three days, or whatever the number was, many requirements of the demesne had to be met.
But a second class of imperial cities (Reichsstt dte), much more numerous than the former, consisted of those founded on demesne-land belonging either to the Empire or to one of the families who rose to imperial rank.
In English legal history, "ancient" tenure or demesne refers to what was crown property in the time of Edward the Confessor or William the Conqueror.
The first Lord Bathurst (1684-1 7 75) devoted himself to beautifying the fine demesne of Oakley Park, which he planted and adorned with remarkable artificial ruins.
Cirencester (Cirneceaster, Cyrenceaster, Cyringceaster) is described in Domesday as ancient demesne of the crown.
He kept to the old system of revenues from the demesne and from imposts that were reactionary in their effect, such as the taille, aids, salt-tax (gabelle) and customs; only he managed them better.
He did subdue Aquitaine completely, thanks to his brother Charibert, with whom he had avoided dividing the kingdom, and he tried to restore his own demesne, which had been despoiled by the granting of benefices or by the pious frauds of the Church.
The kings, like private individuals and ecclesiastical establishments, made use of the beneficium to reward their servants; till finally their demesne was so reduced by these perpetual grants that they took to distributing among their champions land owning the overlordship of the Church, or granted their own lands for single lives only.
Demesne against such pillagers as Hugh of Le Puiset or Thomas of Marie.
It would seem that the manorial grudges between landowner and peasant, which had been so fierce in the 14th century, had died down as the lords abandoned the old system of working their demesne by villein labor.
Even if they exacted the full rigour of service from the survivors, they could not get their broad demesne lands properly tilled.
Gradually the landowners discovered that the only practical way out of their difficulties was to give up the old custom of working the manorial demesne by the forced labor of their villeins, and to cut it up into farms which were rented out to free tenants, and cultivated by them.
In the course of two generations the farmers who paid rent for these holdings became more and more numerous, and demesne land tilled by villein-service grew more and more rare.