Thucydides, who quotes this passage to show the ancient character of the Delian festival, seems to have no doubt of the Homeric authorship of the hymn.
8 The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in 500 B.C.; 9 but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 480 Cyprus furnished no less than 150 ships to the fleet of Xerxes; 1° and in spite of the repeated attempts of the Delian League to " liberate " the island, it remained subject to Persia during the 5th century."
In his attitude towards the members of the Delian League Pericles likewise maintained a purely Athenian point of view.
In the 5th century the three cities were enrolled in the Delian League, and democracies became prevalent.
Led by Aristides and Cimon they rendered such prominent service as to receive in return the formal leadership of the Greek allies and the presidency of the newly formed Delian League.
The Delian confederacy lay completely under Athenian control, and the points of strategic importance were largely held by cleruchies (q.v.; see also Pericles) and garrisons.
With tolls, and the tribute of the Delian League, a fund of 9700 talents (2,30o,000) was amassed in the treasury.
Her generals and admirals, Conon, Iphicrates, Chabrias, Timotheus, distinguished themselves by their military skill, and partially recovered their country's predominance in the Aegean, which found expression in the temporary renewal of the Delian League.
DELIAN LEAGUE, or Confederacy Of Delos, the name given to a confederation of Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with its headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 B.C. shortly after the final repulse of the expedition of the Persians under Xerxes I.
At all events, it is significant of the success of the main object of the Delian League, the Athenians resigning Cyprus and Egypt, while Persia recognized the freedom of the maritime Greeks of Asia Minor.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
The details of his conquests are uncertain, but it is known that in the Cyclades he maintained an alliance with the tyrant Lygdamis of Naxos, and curried favour with the Delian Apollo by dedicating to, him the island of Rheneia.
The 4000 cleruchs settled in 506 B.C. upon the lands of the conquered oligarchs of Euboea, known as the Hippobotae) was unquestionably military, and in the later days of the Delian 1 It seems (Strabo, p. 635) that similar colonies were sent out by the Milesians, e.g.
Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional Antiquities (London, 1896); for the Periclean cleruchs see Pericles; Delian League.
It became known as the "Delian problem" or the "problem of the duplication of the cube," and ranks in historical importance with the problems of "trisecting an angle" and "squaring the circle."
After the defeat of Xerxes the Thasians joined the Delian confederacy; but afterwards, on account of a difference about the mines and marts on the mainland, they revolted.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues.
PELOPONNESIAN WAR, in Greek history, the name given specially to the struggle between Athens at the head of the Delian League and the confederacy of which Sparta was the leading power.'
The key to the situation is in fact the commercial rivalry of the Corinthians, whose trade (mainly in the West) had been seriously limited by the naval expansion of the Delian League.
The Athenian Empire is described elsewhere (Delian League, Athens).
While acknowledging the suzerainty of Persia, however, the Lycians remained practically independent, and for a time joined the Delian league.
The hymn to the Delian Apollo ends with an address of the poet to his audience.
The latter of these may evidently be taken to belong to Salamis in Cyprus and the festival of the Cyprian Aphrodite, in the same way that the Hymn to Apollo belongs to Delos and the Delian gathering.
At the north-west corner of the precinct is a building of limestone, the mWpcvos oircos often mentioned in the inventories of the treasures of the Delian shrine.
In the 6th century B.C. the influence of the Delian Apollo was at its height; Polycrates of Samos dedicated the neighbouring island of Rheneia to his service and Peisistratus of Athens caused all the area within sight of the temple to be cleared of the tombs by which its sanctity was impaired.
After the Persian wars, the predominance of Athens led to the transformation of the Delian amphictyony into the Athenian empire.
After 166 B.C. the Romans restored the control of Delian worship to Athens, but granted to the island various commercial privileges which brought it great prosperity.
These were mostly settled by Milesians, Panticapaeum in the 7th or early in the 6th century B.C., but Phanagoria (c. 540 B.C.) was a colony of Teos, and Nymphaeum had some connexion with Athens - at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian Confederacy.
Apollo was born on the 7th day (050,ua-yEviis) of the month Thargelion according to Delian, of the month Bysios according to Delphian, tradition.
Though enrolled in the Delian League it remained disaffected towards Athens, and in 447 had to be coerced by the settlement of a cleruchy.
As a member of the second Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an archon.
In his hymns he celebrated Opis and Arge, two Hyperborean maidens who founded the cult of Apollo in Delos, and in the hymn to Eilythyia the birth of Apollo and Artemis and the foundation of the Delian sanctuary.
After its liberation in 479 Chios joined the Delian League and long remained a firm ally of the Athenians, who allowed it to retain full autonomy.
As a member of the Delian League it had regained its prosperity, being able to equip a fleet of 50 or 60 sail.
The Delian amphictyony probably reached the height of its splendour early in the 7th century B.C. The Hymn to the Delian Apollo, composed about that time, celebrates the gathering of the Ionians with their wives and children at the shrine of their god on the island of Delos, to worship him with music, dancing and gymnastic contests (vv.
When after the great war with Persia the Aegean cities under the leadership of Athens united in a political league (477 B.C.), they chose as its centre the temple of the Delian Apollo, doubtless through a desire to connect the new alliance with the associations of the old amphictyony.
How far the council and other institutions of the Delian confederacy were based upon the amphictyonic organization cannot be determined.
Ferguson, "Delian Amphictyony," in Classical Review (1901), xv.
The city was soon rebuilt, and as a member of both the Delian Leagues attached itself by numerous treaties to the Athenians.
The affairs of the temple were managed by a board of five Athenian amphictyons, assisted by some Delian officials (inscrr.