Kant's distinction of " deist " and " theist " may be found in the Critique of Pure Reason, " Transcendental Dialectic," Book II.
" Deist," or sometimes " theist " in sense (I), or Naturalist, is a term of reprobation with English 18th-century apologists, but not " Natural Religion."
In theology he was not a naturalist or a deist, but a believer in the necessity of revealed religion for salvation.
The Italian MS. was found by the Deist, John Toland, in a private collection at Amsterdam (see his Nazarenus, 1718); subsequently it came into the possession of Prince Eugene of Savoy, and finally was obtained with Eugene's library by the imperial library at Vienna.
Consequently tliey exclude once for all from political supremacy all the different servants of God - Catholic, Protestant or Deist - as being at once behindhand and a cause of disturbance."
He later called himself a deist, or theist, not discriminating between the terms. To his favourite sister he wrote: " There are some things in your New England doctrine and worship which I do not agree with; but I do not therefore condemn them, or desire to shake your belief or practice of them."
As to (a), it is obvious that atheism from the standpoint of the Christian is a very different conception as compared with atheism as understood by a Deist, a Positivist, a follower of Euhemerus or Herbert Spencer, or a Buddhist.
Even then Rousseau did not settle at once in the anomalous but to him charming position of domestic lover to this lady, who, nominally a converted Protestant, was in reality, as many women of her time were, a kind of deist, with a theory of noble sentiment and a practice of libertinism tempered by good nature.
In religion Rousseau was undoubtedly what he has been called above - a sentimental deist; but no one who reads him with the smallest attention can fail to see that sentimentalism was the essence, deism the accident of his creed.
ANTHONY COLLINS (1676-1729), English deist, was born at Heston, near Hounslow in Middlesex, on the 21st of June 1676.
The second is the typical deist of Locke's school, improved as regards his philosophy, and holding that the only possible proof of God's existence was a posteriori, from design, and that such proof was, on the whole, sufficient.
PETER ANNET (1693-1769), English deist, is said to have been born at Liverpool.
What that work has done is to prove to the consistent deist that no objections can be drawn from reason or experience against natural or revealed religion, and, consequently, that the things objected to are not incredible and may be proved by external evidence.
The words "deism" and "deist" appear first about the middle of the 16th century in France (cf.
The first specific attack on deism in English was Bishop Stillingfleet's Letter to a Deist (1677).
"Free-thinker" (in Germany, Freidenker) was generally taken to be synonymous with "deist," though obviously capable of a wider signification, and as coincident with esprit fort and with libertin in the original and theological sense of the word.(Fn 1) "Naturalists" was a name frequently used of such as recognized no god but nature, of so-called Spinozists, atheists; but both in England and Germany, in the 18th century, this word was more commonly and aptly in use for those who founded their religion on the lumen naturae alone.
The same men were not seldom assaulted under the name of "theists"; the later distinction between "theist" and "deist," which stamped the latter word as excluding the belief in providence or in the immanence of God, was apparently formulated in the end of the 18th century by those rationalists who were aggrieved at being identified with the naturalists.
Voltaire during his three years' residence in England (1726-1729) absorbed an enthusiasm for freedom of thought, and provided himself with the arguments necessary to support the deism which he had learned in his youth; he was to the end a deist of the school of Bolingbroke.
It seems probable, for example, that in Portugal the marquis de Pombal was in reality a deist, and both in Italy and in Spain there were signs of the same rationalistic revolt.
His next and best-known work, Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated on the Principles of a Religious Deist (2 vols., 1737-1741), preserves his name as the author of the most daring and ingenious of theological paradoxes.