Above Deir, where lie the ruins of Halebiya, the river breaks through a basaltic dike, el-I;Iamme, some 300 to 500 ft.
The only riverain towns of any importance on this stretch of the river to-day are Samsat, Birejik, Deir, `Ana and Hit.
Here the Belikh (Bilechas) joins the Euphrates, flowing southward through the biblical Aram Naharaim from Urfa (Edessa) and Harran (Carrhae); and from this point to el-IKaim four days' below Deir, the course of the river is south-easterly.
Twentysix miles farther down lies the town of Deir, where the river divides into two channels and the river valley opens out into quite extensive plains.
A little below Deir the river is joined by the Khabur (Khaboras, Biblical Khabor), the frontier of the Roman empire from Diocletian's time, which rises in the Karaja Dagh, and, with its tributary, the Jaghijagh (Mygdonius; Arab.
The corresponding border town on the Syrian side is represented by the picturesque and finely preserved ruins called Salahiya, the Ad-dalie or Dalie (Adalia) of Arabic times, two days below Deir, whose more ancient name is as yet unknown.
Between Salahiya and Deir, on an old canal, known in Arabic times as Said, leaving the Euphrates a little below Deir and rejoining it above Salahiya, stand the almost more picturesque ruins of the once important Arabic fortress of Rahba.
On the Mesopotamian side there would seem, from the accounts of Xenophon and Ptolemy, to have been an affluent which joined the Euphrates between Deir and `Ana, called Araxes by the former, Saocoras by the latter; but no trace of such a stream has been found by modern explorers and the country in general has always been uninhabited.
Here palm trees, which had begun to appear singly at Deir, grow in large groves, the olive disappears entirely, and we have definitely passed over from the Syrian to the Babylonian, flora and climate.
At Deir el Bahri we see that the animal had its throat cut in Mahommedan fashion; it lay on its side, the legs tied together; the heart was taken out, then the liver; the burnt sacrifice was hardly known.
A little to the south of a village called Deir Diwan, and one hour's journey south-east from Bethel, is the site of an ancient place called Khirbet Haiydn, indicated by reservoirs hewn in the rock, excavated tombs and foundations of hewn stone.
Jabesh is perhaps to be found at Meriamin, less probably at ed-Deir; Jazer, at Yajuz near Jogbehah, rather than at Sar.
At Thebes, New York has also carried out work at Qurnet Murra`i and Sheikh `Abd el Qurna, as well as at Dra t Abul Neqqa and Deir el Bahri, 55 where the Earl of Carnarvon, assisted by Mr. Howard Carter, has also dug with remarkable success, recovering some of the most beautiful relics of the art of the XII.
Dynasty, with interesting sculptures of Neb-hepet Re (the king whose tomb temple at Deir el Bahri was excavated by Naville and Hall for the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1903-7) has been found,.
DEIR, or DEIR Ez -ZOR, a town of Asiatic Turkey, on the right bank of the Euphrates, 272 m.
Deir itself is a thrifty and rising town, having considerable traffic; it is singularly European in appearance, with macadamized streets and a public garden.
The name Deir means monastery, but there is no other trace or tradition of the occupation of the site before the 14th century, and until it became the capital of the sanjak it was an insignificant village.
He resides at Deir al-Kamar, an old seat of the Druse amirs.
Under the governor are seven kaimakams, all Christians except a Druse in Shuf, and forty-seven niudirs, who all depend on the kaimakams except one in the home district of Deir al-Kamar.
A Bes-like mask was found by Petrie amongst remains of the twelfth dynasty, but the earliest occurrence of the god is in the temple of the queen Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahri (c. 1500 B.C.), where he is figured along with the hippopotamus goddess as present at the queen's birth.
The pyramid-fields of Memphis and Sakkara, and the necropolis of Meydum, and those of Abydos and Thebes were examined; the great temples of Dendera and Edfu were disinterred; important excavations were carried out at Karnak, Medinet-Habu and Deir el-Bahri; Tanis (the Zoan of the Bible) was partially explored in the Delta; and even Gebel Barkal in the Sudan.
His chief published works are: Le Serapeum de Memphis (18J7 and following years); Denderah, five folios and one 4to (1873-1875) Abydos, two folios and one 4to (1870-1880); Karnak, folio and 4to (1875); Deir el-Bahari, folio and 4to (1877); Listes geographiques des p_ y lones de Karnak, folio (1875); Catalogue du Muse'e de Boulaq (six editions 1864-1876); A percu de l'histoire d'Egypte (four editions, 1864-1874, &c.); LesMastabas de l'ancien empire (edited by Maspero) (1883).
Of this dynasty, which has been revealed by the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Fund at Deir el Bahri (see Architecture, section Egyptian, fig.
Developed Karnak, and on the west bank built the great funerary temple of Deir el Bahri and smaller temples as far south as Medinet Habu, and began the long series of royal tombs in the famous Valley of the Tombs of the Kings far back in the desert behind Deir el Bahri.
Northward and far back in the foot-hills is the Ptolemaic temple of Deir el Medina, and beyond under the cliffs of Deir el Bahri the terrace temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the walls of which are adorned with scenes from her expedition to Puoni (Somaliland) in search of incense trees, and many other subjects.
Far behind Medinet Habu are the Tombs of the Queens, where royal relatives of the XXth Dynasty are buried; and immediately behind the lofty cliffs of Deir el Bahri, but accessible only by a very circuitous route from Kurna, are the tombs of the kings (from Tethmosis I.
And in the burial-place of the priest-kings at Deir el Bahri.
Naville, (Temple of) Deir el Bahari, introduction and parts i.
Maspero, "Les Momies royales de Deir el Bahari" in Memoires de la mission archeologique francaise au Caire, tome I.; and many other works.
Border of the desert are the tombs of Deshgsha, Meir and Assiflt, and on the east bank those of Beni Hasan, the rockcut temple of Speos Artemidos, the tombs of El Bersha and Sheikh Said, the tonibs and stelae of El Amarna with the alabaster quarries of, Hanub in the desert behind them, and the tombs of Deir el Gebrgwi.
The temples were the principal places for reliefs; and they steadily deteriorate from the first great example, Deir el Bahri (see ARCHITECTURE: Egyptian), down to the late Ramessides.
The principal monument of this period is the temple of Deir el Bahri, the funeral temple of Hatshepsut, on which she recorded the principal event of her reign, the expedition to Punt.
The funerary temple of Nebhepr Menthotp III., the last but one of these kings, has been excavated by the Egypt Exploration Fund at Deir el Bahri, and must have been a magnificent monument.
The nomarchs and the other feudal chiefs were inclined to strengthen themselves at the expense of their neighbors; a firm hand wa~ required to hold them in check and distribute the honors as they were earned by faithful service., The tombs of the most favored and wealthy princes are magnificent, particularly those of certain families in Middle Egypt at Beni Hasari, El Bersha, AssiUt and Deir RIfa, and it is probable that each had a court and organization within.
The great find of royal mummies at Deir el Bahri, shows the head frightfully hacked and split, perhaps in a battle with the Hyksos.
The temple of Deir el Bahri also was designed by him.
She completed and decorated the temple of Deir el Bahri, embellishing its walls with scenes calculated to establish her claims, representing her divine origin and upbringing under the protection of Ammon, and her association on the throne by her human father.
His mummy, found in the cachette at Deir el Bahri, is said to be that of a very old man.
The mummies from the despoiled tombs of the kings were the object of much anxious care to the kings of this dynasty; after being removed from one tomb to another, they were finally deposited in a shaft near the temple of Deir el Bahri, where they remained for nearly three thousand years, until the demand for antiquities at last brought the plunderer once more to their hiding-place; eventually they were all secured for the Cairo museum, where they may now be seen.
It is the chief centre of the Jacobite Christians, who have many villages in the Tor Abdin hills to the north-east, and whose patriarch lives at Deir Zaferan, a Syrian monastery of the 9th century not far off in the same direction.
The principal ruin, of Roman origin and now called Deir el Hagar (the stone convent), is of considerable size.