Thus the gonads are covered over by at least four layers of epithelium, and since these are unnecessary, presenting merely obstacles to the dehiscence of the gonads, they gradually undergo reduction.
The plants show great diversity in vegetative structure, which together with the character and mode of dehiscence of the fruit afford a basis for the subdivision of the order into tribes, eleven of which are recognized.
The pollen is set free by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means of longitudinal slits, but sometimes by pores, as in the heath family (Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry.
(P, N, p, n, X I I o.) Samolus, anatropous with the hilum basal - together with the method of dehiscence of the capsule and the relative position of the ovary.
The sporangia (pollen-sacs), which occur on the under-side of the stamens, are often arranged in more or less definite groups or sori, interspersed with hairs (paraphyses); dehiscence takes place along a line marked out by the occurrence of smaller and thinner-walled cells bounded by larger and thickerwalled elements, which form a fairly prominent cap-like " annulus " near the apex of the sporangium, not unlike the annulus characteristic of the Schizaeaceae among ferns.
The cells of the wall of the sporangium are usually so constructed as to determine the dehiscence of the sporangium and the liberation of its spores.
The spores, when liberated by the dehiscence of the sporangium, give rise to the prothallus, which is now, owing mainly to the investigations of Treub and Bruchmann, known in a number of tropical and temperate species.
The annulus is horizontal and the dehiscence median.
The sporangium, which corresponds on the whole to that of the Gleicheniaceae, has a somewhat oblique annulus; the dehiscence also is not truly median.
Each has an almost horizontal annulus resembling that of Gleichenia, but the dehiscence is lateral.
The dehiscence of the sporangium is almost transverse, as in the Polypodiaceae, but the annulus is slightly oblique.
The differences in the form and mode of dehiscence of the sporangia (those of the Simplices having median dehiscence and a horizontal annulus, those of the Gradatae a more or less oblique position of the annulus and of the plane of dehiscence, while in the Mixtae the annulus is vertical and the dehiscence transverse) stand in relation to the position of the sporangia in the sorus relatively to one another.
The opening or dehiscence of the anthers to discharge their contents takes place either by clefts, by valves, or by pores.
When the anther-lobes are erect, the cleft is lengthwise along the line of the suture - longitudinal dehiscence (fig.
73) and in Lemna; the dehiscence is then transverse.
When the anther lobes are rendered horizontal by the enlargement of the connective, then what is really longitudinal dehiscence may appear to be transverse.
Another mode of dehiscence is the valvular, as in the barberry (fig.
- Stamen of a species of Nightshade (Solanum), showing the divergence of the anther-lobes at the base, and the dehiscence by pores at the apex.
Dehiscence appears to have taken place at the free end of the sporangium; the spores are numerous, and, so far as observed, of one kind only.
Synangium after dehiscence, magnified.
In A the stomium (st) or place of dehiscence is shown.
When the synangia are ripe dehiscence takes place along a median line between the two rows of loculi.
In size, position, arrangement, and manner of dehiscence the sporangia bear a striking resemblance to those of Marattia and Danaea among recent Marattiaceae.
8, Bennettites, synangium of male flower, showing line of dehiscence, k, and microspores, 1.