Has he been degraded into a field marshal, or into a soldier?
It is supposed by some that Saccharomyces is a very degraded Ascomycete, in which the Torula condition has become fixed.
Like Umbrian also, but unlike Latin and Oscan, it has degraded all the diphthongs into simple vowels (Volscian se parallel to Oscan svai; Volscian deue, Old Latin and Oscan deivai or deiuoi).
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
Slaves were recruited by purchase abroad, from captives taken in war and by freemen degraded for debt or crime.
The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
After his release Wakefield seemed disposed for a while to turn his attention to social questions at home, and produced a tract on the Punishment of Death, with a terribly graphic picture of the condemned sermon in Newgate, and another on incendiarism in the rural districts, with an equally powerful exhibition of the degraded condition of the agricultural labourer.
That body, at all events, could not be degraded save by its own act.
If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.
His property was confiscated - his jewels, furniture and ready money were estimated to amount to £120,000 - he was degraded from the grandeeship and exiled to the Philippines.
I refer to the degraded poor, not now to the degraded rich.
The Hebrew word shed or " demon " is no more than a Babylonian loan word, and came to designate the deities of foreign peoples degraded into the position of demons.'
Eaton discovered on the desolate shores of Kerguelen's 'Island apterous and semi-apterous Diptera (Tipulidae and jEph_ydridae) of a degraded type adapted to the climatic peculiarities of the locality.
He defended himself ably against Archbishop Thomas Arundel, but in February he was condemned and was degraded from the priesthood.
No formal excommunication of Origen appears to have been decreed; it was considered sufficient to have him degraded to the position of a layman.
The genesis of Mandaeis.m and the older gnosis from the old and elaborate BabylonioChaldaean religion is clearly seen also in the fact that the names of the old pantheon (as for example those of the planetary divinities) are retained, but their holders degraded to the position of demons - a conclusion confirmed by the fact that the Mandaeans, like the allied Ophites, Peratae and Manichaeans, certainly have their original seat in Mesopotamia and Babylonia.
The various larvae of the above series, however, have all a distinct head-capsule, which is altogether wanting in the degraded fly maggot.
In conjunction with the association mentioned above of the most highly developed imaginal with the most degraded larval structure, it indicates clearly that the active, armoured grub preceded the sluggish soft-skinned caterpillar or maggot in the evolution of the Hexapoda.
His order of wingless insects (Aptera) included Crustacea, spiders, centipedes and other creatures that now form classes of the Arthropoda distinct from the Hexapoda; it also included Hexapoda of parasitic and evidently degraded structure, that are now regarded as allied more or less closely to various winged insects.
Hexapoda mostly with wings; the wingless forms clearly degraded or modified.
The Corrodentia retain vestigial maxillulae and two pairs of Malpighian tubes, but the wings are somewhat specialized in the Copeognatha and absent in the degraded and parasitic Mallophaga.
The Anoplura may probably be regarded as a degraded offshoot of the Hemiptera.
The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect larvae.
The original territory still preserves to a large degree its irregularity of surface, but its hills have been much degraded or wholly razed.
The general state of the island when the Japanese assumed possession was that the plain of Giran on the eastern coast and the hill-districts were inhabited by semibarbarous folk, the western plains by Chinese of a degraded type, and that between the two there existed a traditional and continuous feud, leading to mutual displays of merciless and murderous violence.
Women hold a degraded position among the Somali (wives being often looted with sheep), doing most of the hard work.
This ancient civilization is supposed to have been swept away by Mahommedan conquerors; before that event the people, in the opinion of several travellers, professed a degraded form of Christianity, which they had acquired from their Abyssinian neighbours.
The sons of the family were familiarized with vice, and the general tone of the younger generation was lowered by their intimate association with a despised and degraded class.
The slaves of the leno and the lanista were probably in most cases not only degraded but unhappy.
Preserved merely as taxpayers necessary to supply the funds for the maintenance of the dominant and military class, according to a foreign observer in 1571, they had been so degraded and oppressed that they dared not look a Turk in the face.
But in 304, Fabius Rullianus limited them to the four city tribes, and from that time the term meant a man degraded from a higher (country) to a lower (city) tribe, but not deprived of the right of voting or of serving in the army.
Other views of the original aerarii are that they were: - artisans and freedmen (Niebuhr); inhabitants of towns united with Rome by a hospitium publicum, who had become domiciled on Roman territory (Lange); only a class of degraded citizens, including neither the cives sine sufJragio nor the artisans (Madvig); identical with the capite censi of the Servian constitution (Belot, Greenidge).
2) may ordain validly, and that a priest who has been degraded can still celebrate the Eucharist (Summ.
Their privileges were overridden, their petitions were disregarded, their diets were degraded into mere registries of the royal decrees.
He aspired to the role of a politician, and has left a memorable example of genius degraded to servility for the sake of a riband and a title.
Then followed the council of St Basle, near Reims, at which Arnulf confessed his treason and was degraded from his office (17th June 991).
Hence in the latest designs for large factories it has been proposed that as much normal juice as can be extracted by double crushing only shall be treated by itself, and that the megass shall then be soused with twice as much water as there is juice remaining in it; after which, on being subjected to a third crushing, it will yield a degraded juice, which would also be treated by itself.
After a year's imprisonment in the Tower Prynne was sentenced by the star chamber on the 17th of February 1634 to be imprisoned for life, and also to be fined f5000, expelled from Lincoln's Inn, rendered incapable of returning to his profession, degraded from his degree in the university of Oxford, and set in the pillory, where he was to lose both his ears.
The view most commonly held is that they were degraded or " depotentiated " gods, occupying a position intermediate between gods and men.
Instances no doubt occur of gods being degraded to the ranks of heroes, but these are not the real heroes, the heroes who are the object of a cult.
The cult-heroes were all persons who had lived the life of man on earth, and it was necessary for the degraded gods to pass through this stage.
Of the latter the number has tended to diminish in the light of modern scholarship. The fashion during the 19th century set strongly in the other direction, and the " degraded gods " theory was applied not only to such conspicuous heroes as Siegfried, Dietrich and Beowulf, but to a host of minor characters, such as the good marquis Rudeger of the Nibelungenlied and our own Robin Hood (both identified with Woden Hruodperaht).
Gawain (Welwain, Welsh Gwalchmai), Arthur's nephew, who in medieval romance remains the type of knightly courage and chivalry, until his character is degraded in order to exalt that of Lancelot.
A production so degraded as the early Makuzu faience could not possibly have a lengthy vogue.
Likewise primitive, but in various respects degraded, mainly owing to burrowing habits, are the Typhlopidae with the Ilysiidae, and Uropeltidae as a terminal branch, and on the other hand the Glauconiidae.
Rather than despise the faulty presentation of truth which we find in heathen religions and their more or less degraded rites, we follow the apostle Paul in his endeavour to trace in them attempts " to feel after God " (Acts vii.
Has been degraded into forming a lining to the crowns of the sovereigns and the coronets of the peers.
He denounced the papal government as utterly degraded, and urged that the vast property of the Church, which he held to be the chief cause of its degradation, should be secularized and that the clergy should consist of " poor priests," supported only by tithes and alms. They should preach the gospel and encourage the people to seek the truth in the Scriptures themselves, of which a translation into English was completed in 1382.
In the nature and position of the upland rocks - mainly crystalline schists and gneisses, excessively complicated and disordered in mass, and also internally deformed - there is found abundant proof that the peneplain is a degraded mountain region.
From this time to the establishment of the Thirty (462404 B.C.) the Areopagitic council, degraded still further by the opening of the archonship to the Zeugitae (457 B.C.) and by the absolute use of the lot in filling the office, was a political nullity.
14, 15, indeed, he is degraded into a mere typical snake, but iii.
In each point the English constitution, which he ardently admires, is, he says, suffering: the prerogatives of the crown are disproportionately great; the peerage has been degraded by new creations; and parliaments are slighted.
The kahin, therefore, is not a degraded priest but such a soothsayer as is found in most primitive societies, and the Canaanite priests grew out of these early revealers.
The last of the Khoja revolts (1857) was of about equal duration with the previous one, and took place under Wali-Khan, a degraded debauchee, and the murderer of the lamented traveller Adolf Schlagintweit.
We are so degraded that we cannot speak simply of the necessary functions of human nature.
In early times the son who denied his father had his front hair shorn, a slave-mark put on him, and could be sold as a slave; while if he denied his mother he had his front hair shorn, was driven round the city as an example and expelled his home, but not degraded to slavery.
This synod in 1667 deposed Nikon, degraded him from holy orders, and sentenced him to perpetual penance in a monastery (ib.
There were really constant disagreements, and sometimes the king degraded the mayor and appointed a custos or warden in his place.
It is found that in reducing the juice of these two qualities to syrup, fit to pass to the vacuum pans for cooking to crystals, the total amount of evaporation from the degraded j uice is about half that required from the normal juice produced by double crushing.
Their fervour was too hot to be lasting, and Savonarola's uncompromising spirit roused the hatred of political adversaries as well as of the degraded court of Rome.