Many aphides, &c., puncture the leaves, suck out the sap, and induce va:ious local deformations, arrest of growth, pustular swellings, &c., and if numerous all the evils of defoliation may follow.
Similarly with Anemone infested with Puccinia and Vacciniusn with Catyptospora, and many other cases of deformations due to hypertrophy or atrophy.
Valuable measurements of the deformations of girders and tension members due to moving trains have been made by S.
A great variety of deformations and growths produced by insects and mites as well as by fungi have been described.
Trend to crustal deformations which in very early geological time gave a beginning to what later came to be the Appalachian mountain system; but this system had Its climax of deformation so long ago (probably in Permian time) that it has since then been very generally reduced to moderate or low relief, and owes its present altitude either to renewed elevations along the earlier lines or to the survival of the most resistant rocks as residual mountains.
The Pacific coast has been defined chiefly by relatively recent crustal deformations, and hence still preserves a greater relief than that of the Atlantic. The minor features of each coast will be mentioned in connection with the lani districts of which the coast-line is only the border.
At the close of the period there were considerable deformations in the west.
The Pacific coast has been defined chiefly by relatively recent crustal deformations, and hence still preserves a greater relief than that of the Atlantic. The minor features of each coast will be mentioned in connexion with the land districts of which the coast-line is only the border.
Whatever the deformation of the originally straight boundary of the axial section may be, it can be resolved by Fourier's theorem into deformations of the harmonic type.
These component deformations are in general infinite in number, of very wave-length and of arbitrary phase; but in the first stages of the motion, with which alone we are at present concerned, each produces its effect independently of every other, and may be considered by itself.