**The** **number** **of** **published** **weights** **did** **not** **exceed** 600 **of** **all** **standards** **in** 1880; **but** **the** **collections** **from** **Naucratis** (28), **Defenneh** (29) **and** **Memphis** (44) **have** **supplied** **over** **six** **times** **this** **quantity**, **and** **of** **an** **earlier** **age** **than** **most** **other** **examples**, **while** **existing** **collections** **have** **been** **more** **thoroughly** **examined**.

**In** **weights** **of** **the** **same** **place** **and** **age** **there** **is** **a** **far** **wider** **range**; **at** **Defenneh** (29), **within** **a** **century** **probably**, **the** **average** **variation** **of** **different** **units** **is** 1/36, 1/60, **and** 1/67, **the** **range** **being** **just** **the** **same** **as** **in** **all** **times** **and** **places** **taken** **together**.

**That** **this** **mode** **of** **originating** **standards** **was** **greatly** **promoted**, **if** **not** **started**, **by** **the** **use** **of** **coinage** **we** **may** **see** **by** **the** **rarity** **of** **the** **Persian** **silver** **weight** (**derived** **from** **the** **Assyrian** **standard**), **soon** **after** **the** **introduction** **of** **coinage**, **as** **shown** **in** **the** **weights** **of** **Defenneh** (29).

**The** **main** **series** **on** **which** **we** **shall** **rely** **here** **are** **those** -- (1) **from** **Assyria** (38) **about** 800 **B**.**C**.; (2) **from** **the** **eastern** **Delta** **of** **Egypt** (29) (**Defenneh**); (3) **from** **western** **Delta** (28) (**Naucratis**); (4) **from** **Memphis** (44) -- **all** **these** **about** **the** 6th **century** **B**.**C**., **and** **therefore** **before** **much** **interference** **from** **the** **decreasing** **coin** **standards**; (5) **from** **Cnidus**; (6) **from** **Athens**; (7) **from** **Corfu**; **and** (8) **from** **Italy** (**British** **Museum**) (44).

**It** **is** **scarcer** **at** **Defenneh** (29) **and** **rare** **at** **Memphis** (44).

4000; 400,000 **Another** **unit**, **which** **has** **scarcely** **been** **recognized** **in** **metrology** **hitherto**, **is** **prominent** **in** **the** **weights** **from** **Egypt** -- **some** 50 **weights** **from** **Naucratis** **and** 15 **from** 400 **Defenneh** **plainly** **agreeing** **on** **this** **and** **on** **no** **other** **basis**.

**In** **the** **medical** **papyrus** (38) **a** **weight** **of** 2/3rds **kat** **is** **used**, **which** **is** **thought** **to** **be** **Syrian**; **now** 2/3 **kat** = 92 **to** 101 **grains**, **or** **just** **this** **weight** **which** **we** **have** **found** **in** **Syria**; **and** **the** **weights** **of** 2/3 **and** 1/3 **kat** **are** **very** **rare** **in** **Egypt** **except** **at** **Defenneh** (29), **on** **the** **Syrian** **road**, **where** **they** **abound**.

**In** **Egypt** **the** **mean** **value** **at** **Naucratis** (29) **was** 66.7, **while** **at** **Defenneh** (29) **and** **Memphis** (44) -- **probably** **rather** **earlier** -- **it** **was** 67.0.