After the fall of Rome he left the city at the head of 4000 volunteers, with the idea of joining the defenders of Venice, and started on that wonderful retreat through central Italy pursued by the armies of France, Austria, Spain and Naples.
Many of its native Christian defenders emigrated to Dalmatia and Italy; others took refuge in the mountains with the Roman Catholic Ghegs.
On the 10th of September he stormed Drogheda, and by his order the whole of its 2800 defenders were put to the sword without quarter.
The cause of the republic was brilliantly advocated by Fra Paolo Sarpi, counsellor of state; the defenders of the papal theory were Cardinals Baronius and Bellarmine.
The city was quieter and more orderly than it had ever been before, for Mazzini and Ciceruacchio success- Gactb~di fully opposed all class warfare; and in April the defenders received a priceless addition to their strength in the person of Garibaldi, who, on the outbreak of the revolution in 1848, had returned with a few of his followers from his exile in South America, and in April 1849 entered Rome with some 500 men to fight for the republic. At this time France, as a counterpoise to Austrian intervention in other parts of Italy, decided to restore the pope, regardless of the fact that this action would necessitate the crushing of a sister France republic. As yet, however, no such intention was and the publicly avowed.
Garibaldi quitted the city, followed by 4000 of his men, and attempted to join the defenders of Venice.
The assembly voted: Venice resists the Austrians at all costs, and the citizens and soldiers, strengthened by the arrival of volunteers from all parts of Italy, including Pepe, who was given the chief command of the defenders, showed the most splendid devotion in their hopeless task.
On that occasion the garrison was 40,000 strong, and the assault cost the assailants 10,000 and the defenders 30,000 men.
The vigour and tactical skill of Bonaparte contributed very largely to the success of the troops of the Convention over the Parisian malcontents on the famous day of 1 3 Vendemiaire (October 5th, 1795), when the defenders of the Convention, sweeping the quays and streets near the Tuilleries by artillery and musketry, soon paralysed the movement at its headquarters, the church of St Roch.
The Pelasgic wall enclosed the spring Clepsydra, beneath the north-western corner of the Acropolis, which furnished a watersupply to the defenders of the fortress.
The Acropolis had been dismantled as a fortress after the expulsion of Hippias; its defenders against the Persians found it necessary to erect a wooden barricade at its entrance.
Murad now laid siege to Constantinople to avenge himself on the emperor, and on the 24th of August the desperate valour of the defenders succeeded in driving back an assault led by a band of fanatical dervishes.
The defenders were dispirited and torn by sedition and dissensions, and the emperor could rely on little more than 8000 fighting men, while the assailants, 200,000 strong, were animated by the wildest fanatical zeal.
The siege had lasted fifty-three days when, on the 29th of May 1453, a tremendous assault was successful; the desperate efforts of the Greeks were unavailing, Constantine himself falling among the foremost defenders of the breach.
But these were soon changed, and he now took the important resolution of striking a blow for Spain, and for the defenders of Madrid, by attacking Napoleon's communications with France.
Attacking the passes of Maya and Roncesvalles, he obliged their defenders to retire, after sharp fighting, to a position of close to Sorauren, which, with 25,000 men, he the Pyre= attempted to carry (July 28).
This daunted the enemy for a time, but the defenders were soon out of breath.
To the defenders of the laws of Copernicus and Newton, to Voltaire for example, it seemed that the laws of astronomy destroyed religion, and he utilized the law of gravitation as a weapon against religion.