See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 27; Schiller, Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit, bk.
In the third place it was marked by a decline of good government in Rome.
A decline in nationalism.
Friends and relations advised Nicholas to decline the inheritance.
The decline of the Ottoman power, which began towards the end of the 17th century, was marked by increasing anarchy and lawlessness in the outlying portions of the empire.
A second period of decline followed the working out of this mine and lasted until 1900, when the discovery of a new mineral belt in southern Nevada brought renewed prosperity.
" It was at Rome, on the 15th of October 1764, as I sat musing amidst the ruins of the Capitol, while the barefooted friars were singing vespers in the temple of Jupiter, that the idea of writing the decline and fall of the city first started to my mind."
The decline both in imports and in exports of articles of food, which is the most noteworthy fact exhibited in the preceding table, was due to the almost prohibitive tax in the Customs Law of 1892, upon agricultural products.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
But the decline of nationalism is a force for peace.
"Ah, my dear fellow!" rejoined Karataev, "never decline a prison or a beggar's sack!"
See Gibbon's Decline and Fall (ed.
This decline of vigour was felt, with the customary effects of discord and bad government, in Lower Italy.
Taking the manuscript with him, Gibbon, after an absence of four years, once more visited London in 1787; and the 51st anniversary of the author's birthday (27th April 1788) witnessed the publication of the last three volumes of The Decline and Fall.
Cereal If 1,828 2,044 cultivation occupies the foremost 599 74,209 111,943 place in area and quantity though i68 2,966 2,715 it has been on the decline since f903, still representing, however, an)56 477,191 718,221 advance on previous years.
Its importance lasted until the decline of the fleet in the 4th century A.D.
With the decline of totemism arose the need for human sacrifice - the only means of re-establishing the broken tie of kinship when the animal species was no longer akin to man.
See, for Cheyne's view, his Decline and Fall of Judah:'Introduction (1908).
The period of decline referred to above (Late Minoan III.), which begins about the beginning of the 14th century before our era, must, from the abundance of its remains, have been of considerable duration.
She was inclined to decline his offer.
She had to decline the last trip because it coincided with her monthly cycle - and this trip was cutting the time close.
After Cynthia came out and administered a cold face cloth, Edith seemed somewhat better, enough to decline medical attention, though she remained disoriented even after reaching Ryland's small quarters.
For an embarrassing moment she thought he would decline the offer, but slowly a smile touched the corners of his mouth.
He was succeeded in 705 by his son Osred, and under him and his successors Northumbria began rapidly to decline through the vices of its kings and the extravagance of their donations.
The history of their decline differs from that of the Murabtis, whom they had displaced.
He had no artistic appreciation of the subject he discussed, and he mistook cause for effect in asserting that the decline in public morality was due to the flagrant indecency of the stage.
Haury, 1905, 1907); see Gibbon, Decline and Fall (ed.
On the other hand, in order to check the decline of exports and neutralize the harmful effects of a prolonged customs war, a commercial treaty was in 1896 concluded with Switzerland, carrying with it a reduction, in respect of certain articles, of the imposts which had been fixed by the law of 1892.
The increase in the tonnage of sailing vessels, which in other countries tends to decline, was due to the bounties voted by parliament to its merchant sailing fleet with the view of increasing the number of skilled seamen.
During the twenty years preceding the census of 1901 there was a fall in the death rate of 3.4 per thousand, of which, however, 1 per thousand is attributable to the decline in the birth rate, the balance being attributable to improved sanitary conditions.
After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
The Habsburgs and the Bourbons The decline of French influence at the close of the reign of Louis XIV.
The decline of Mazzinis influence was accompanied by the rise of a new movement in favor of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel, inspired by the Milanese marquis Giorgio New Pallavicini, who had spent 14 years in the Spielberg, Unio~lsi and by Manin, living in exile in Paris, both of them moveex-republicans who had become monarchists.
There is probably a malicious echo in a well-known passage of Gibbon (Decline and Fall, chap. ii.): " The various modes of worship which prevailed in the Roman world were all considered by the people as equally true, by the philosopher as equally false, and by the magistrate as equally useful."
This court was not in operation during the time when the patriarch Nikon was also in effect first minister; but upon his decline exercised its full jurisdiction (ib.
In the 16th century Aix began to decline in importance and prosperity.
For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal.
The Mongol invasion, in the latter part of that century, wrought their ruin, however, and from that time to the present there has been a steady decline in the commercial importance of the Euphrates route, and consequently also of the towns along its course, until at the present time it is only an avenue of ruins.
During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries Minehead had a considerable coastwise trade in wool, grain and wine, but began to decline owing to the migration of the woollen industry to the north of England, and to the decay of the herring fishery.
A general decline in culture is manifest in the Balinese.
Hubert and Mauss, while admitting that in all sacrifices is found some idea of purchase or substitution, decline to admit that all have issued from one primitive form.
The latter half of the 8th century, which witnessed a rapid succession of reigns in the northern kingdom accompanied by dismemberment of its territory and final overthrow, witnessed also the humiliating vassalage and religious decline of the kingdom of Judah.
The book of Deuteronomy, in conjunction with the reformation of Josiah's reign (which synchronizes with the rapid decline of Assyria and the reviving prestige of Yahweh), appeared to mark the triumph of the great prophetic movement.
At this stage he was introduced by a friend (Mr Molesworth) to Bossuet's Variations of Protestantism and Exposition of Catholic Doctrine (see Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. xv., note 79).
The first conception of the Decline and Fall arose as he lingered one evening amidst the vestiges of ancient glory.
He was still contemplating " at an awful distance " The Decline and Fall, and meantime revolved some other subjects, that seemed more immediately practicable.
A note of Fox, however, on the margin of a copy of The Decline and Fall records a very distinct remembrance of the historian's previous vituperation of the ministry; within a fortnight of the date of his acceptance of office, he is there alleged to have said that " there was no salvation for this country until six heads of the principal persons in administration were laid upon the table."
In judging the Decline and Fall it should carefully be observed that it falls into two parts which are heterogeneous in the method of treatment.
Thus the later part of the Decline and Fall, while the narrative of certain episodes will always be read with profit, does not convey a true idea of the history of the empire or of its significance in the history of Europe.
The most famous chapters of the Decline and Fall are the fifteenth and sixteenth, in which the historian traces the early progress of Christianity and the policy of the Roman government towards it.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Of the original quarto edition of The Decline and Fall, vol.
There are at least two German translations of The Decline and Fall, one by Wenck, Schreiter and Beck (1805-1807), and a second by Johann C. Sporschil (1837, new ed.
Mr Taft gained great influence among the more conservative Filipinos, and their entreaties to him to remain influenced him to decline the offer of a place upon the Supreme bench offered by President Roosevelt in 1902.
After the decline of the medieval tradein cloth, lace and buttons were the only articles manufactured here until the introduction of silk-weaving in 1740.
Reigns 40 years, and 40 years of decline bring the kingdom to an end.
Its monarchy traced its origin to Hebron in the south, and its growth is contemporary with a decline in Israel (§ 7).
Cheyne, Decline and Fall of Judah (1908), p. 13, with references.
Bury's edition of Gibbon's Decline and Fall, v.
This third Late Minoan period - the beginning of which may be fixed about 1400 - is an age of stagnation and decline, but the point of departure continued to be the models supplied by the age that had preceded it.
The rise of the mineral saltworks of Cheshire led to its decline in the 18th century, and later the renewed importance of Southampton completed its decay.
The Mayas have left no r cord of their institutions or of the causes of their decline, beyond what may be deduced from their ruined structures.
Minas Geraes is a mining state, though the mining industry has lost much of its importance through the decline in the output of gold and diamonds.
A great decline in the output occurred during the last half of the 19th century; but a new field was discovered in 1908 at Abbadia dos Dourados, in the western part of the state.
West of Ararat high hills extend along the Black Sea, between which and the Taurus range lies the plateau of Asia Minor, reaching to the Aegean Sea; the mountains along the Black Sea, on which are the Olympus and Ida of the ancients, rise to 6000 or 7000 ft.; the Taurus is more lofty, reaching 8000 and 10,000 ft.; both ranges decline in altitude as they approach the Mediterranean.
These ancient states began to decline in the 7th century B.e., and on their ruins rose the Persian empire, which with various political metamorphoses continued to be an important power till the 7th century A.D., after which all western Asia was overwhelmed by the Moslem wave, and old landmarks and kingdoms were obliterated.
How difficult it would have been, at that time, to perceive that the discovery of America would inevitably end the Italian Renaissance and result in the decline of the Mediterranean world and also trigger the rise in influence of Portugal, France, Spain, and England, the west-facing marine powers, who suddenly found themselves to be at the center of the world.
He didn't foresee the consumer demand for the telephone or its massive decline in price.
Like a TV star that doesn't scale back his expenses after his show is cancelled, these benefits expand, not contract, during periods of economic decline, for two main reasons.
Weigh that against the certainty that nearly a billion people are hungry right now and I don't know why we would decline to acquire this knowledge.
That is, agree in principle but decline any personal accountability.
The decline in the economic benefits of war for businesses.
The decline of military alliances and the rise of economic ones.
Even if these new states turn out not to be peaceful, their size probably will mean the conflict is limited, and the decline in military alliances means the conflict is less likely to entangle others and escalate.
To which my Lord Duke in substance replied (both letters were published) that he had already done so, and received the money, and would be obliged to the reverend gentleman if for the future he (the reverend gentleman) would decline meddling with other people's business.
But I would not stand between any man and his genius; and to him who does this work, which I decline, with his whole heart and soul and life, I would say, Persevere, even if the world call it doing evil, as it is most likely they will.
To tell them that she felt ashamed for herself and for them would be to betray her agitation, while to decline their offers to dress her would prolong their banter and insistence.
The officer did not decline, but took the note quietly and thanked her.
To Pierre's assurances that he was not a Frenchman, the captain, evidently not understanding how anyone could decline so flattering an appellation, shrugged his shoulders and said that if Pierre absolutely insisted on passing for a Russian let it be so, but for all that he would be forever bound to Pierre by gratitude for saving his life.
The approaching riders having descended a decline were no longer visible, but they reappeared a few minutes later.
How could I decline without sounding like a total turd?
I tried to decline but he insisted I eat so I complied.
If I decline the honor of being with you, believe me...