Of these methods Bessel generally employed the first because of its simplicity, notwithstanding that it involved a resetting of the right ascension and declination of the axis of the tube with each reversal of the segments.
15), the attachment to the flange of the declination axis is placed as close as it can be to the axis of the tube without interfering with rays converging from the object-glass to any point in the field of view.
The Repsolds find it unnecessary to relieve the friction of the declination axis.
The circles for position angle and declination are read by micrometer-microscopes illuminated by the lamp L; the scales are illuminated by the lamp 1.
The microscopes adjoining 82 read the position and declination circles; for, by an ingenious arrangement of prisms and screens, the images of both circles can be read by each single microscope as shown in fig.
- Dr Engelmann's piece and the declination circle by another (looking up the per forated polar axis), and where he can also set the telescope to any hour angle by one wheel, or to any declination by a second, with the greatest ease.
I, 2 and 3), used to bolt the head of one of the screws, and the instrument was provided with a slipping piece, giving motion to the micrometer by screws acting on two slides, one in right ascension, the other in declination, so that " either of the, webs can be placed upon either component of a double star with ease and certainty (Mem.
These zone observations afforded 3 6 3,93 2 separate places of stars, and form the groundwork of the catalogue of 133,659 stars between 2° and 23° south declination, which was published in 1886 as the eighth volume of the Bonn observations.
Since the distance of a body from the observer cannot be observed directly, but only the right ascension and declination, calling these a and 6 we conceive ideal equations of the form a = f (a, b, c, e, f, g, t) and 5=0 (a, b, c, e, f, g, t), the symbols a, b,.
Complete rotation of the head is obviously impossible because of the interference of the declination axis with the rods, and therefore, in some angles, objects cannot be measured in two positions of the circle.
Bessel's practice was to unclamp in declination, lower and read off the head, and then restore the telescope to its former declination reading, the clockwork meanwhile following the stars in right ascension.
By Merz in 1839 on the model of Bessel's heliometer, submits the following suggestions for its improvement: 1 (I) to give automatically to the two segments simultaneous equal and opposite movement; 2 and (2) to make the tube of metal instead of wood; to attach the heliometer head firmly to this tube; to place the eye-piece permanently in the axis of the telescope; and to fix a strong cradle on the end of the declination axis, in which the tube, with the attached head and eye-piece, could rotate on its axis.
The brass tube, strengthened at the bearing points by strong truly turned collars, rotates in the cast iron cradle q attached to the declination axis.
K clamps the telescope in declination, n clamps it in right ascension, and the handles m and I provide slow motion in declination and right ascension respectively.
A is the eye-piece, b the handle for moving the segments, c the micrometer microscope for reading the scales and scale micrometer, d the micrometer readers of the position and declination circles, e the handle for rotating the large wheel E which carries the screens.
Thus the scales, the positionand declination-circles, the field of view, the heads of all the micrometer-microscopes, the focusing scale, &c., are read without the aid of a hand-lamp and with an amount of illumination that can be regulated at the observer's pleasure.
18 clamps and 19 gives slow motion in declination; 20 clamps and 21 gives slow motion in right ascension.
With the tables of the sun's declination then available, he could calculate his latitude by meridian altitudes of the sun taken with his astrolabe.
Becoming interested in terrestrial magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugenie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
The instrument was then returned to Cambridge (U.S.A.), where the survey extended so as to include all stars of magnitude 7.5 down to - 40° declination, after which it was once more sent back to Arequipa.
Solstitium, from sol, sun, and sistere, to stand still), in astronomy either of the two points at which the sun reaches its greatest declination north or south.
Flamsteed, from measurements made in 1689 and succeeding years with his mural quadrant, similarly concluded that the declination of the Pole Star was 40" less in July than in September.
This star was seen to possess an apparent motion similar to that which would be a consequence of the nutation of the earth's axis; but since its declination varied only one half as much as in the case of y Draconis, it was obvious that nutation did not supply the requisite solution.
Bradley had already perceived, in the case of the two stars previously scrutinized, that the apparent difference of declination from the maximum positions was nearly proportional to the sun's distance from the equinoctial points; and he realized the necessity for more observations before any generalization could be attempted.
His conclusions may be thus summarized: (r) only stars near the solstitial colure had their maximum north and south positions when the sun was near the equinoxes, (2) each star was at its maximum positions when it passed the zenith at six o'clock morning and evening (this he afterwards showed to be inaccurate, and found the greatest change in declination to be proportional to the latitude of the star), (3) the apparent motions of all stars at about the same time was in the same direction.
It remains to consider the measurement of the declination and the horizontal component, these two elements being generally measured with the same instrument, which is called a unifilar magnetometer.
The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination.
When making a determination of declination a brass plummet having the same weight as the magnet is first suspended in its place, and the torsion of the fibre is taken out.
Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
The chief uncertainty in declination observations, at any rate at a fixed observatory, lies in the variable torsion of the silk suspension, as it is found that, although the fibre may be entirely freed from torsion before beginning the declination observations, yet at the conclusion of these observations a considerable amount of torsion may have appeared.
In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian.
In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars.
Declination, which was practically finished by the end of 1878 and published in 1881.
Declination to the equator, and collected the results in the Radclif f e Catalogue for 1890, which contains the places of 6424 stars.
In its simplest form the mounting of an equatorial telescope consists of an axis parallel to the earth's axis, called" the polar axis "; a second axis at right angles to the polar axis called" the declination axis "; and the telescope tube fixed at right angles to the declination axis.
To A A is the polar axis; the telescope is attached to the end of the declination axis; the latter rotates in bearings which are attached to the polar axis and concealed by the telescope itself.
The telescope is counterpoised by a weight attached to the opposite end of the declination axis.
Thus, when the declination axis is horizontal the telescope moves in the plane of the meridian by rotation on the declination axis only.
If we now attach to the polar axis a graduated circle D D, called the" hour circle,"of which the microscope or vernier R reads o h when the declination axis is horizontal, we can obviously read off the hour angle from the meridian of any star to which the telescope may be directed at the instant of observation.
Since the transit circle is preferable to the equatorial for such observations wherein great accuracy is required, the declination and hour circles of an equatorial are employed, not for the determination of the right ascensions and declinations of celestial objects, but for directing the telescope with ease and certainty to any object situated in an approximately known position, and which may or may not be visible to the naked eye, or to define approximately the position of an unknown object.
The declination axis rests on bearings attached to opposite sides of the polar axis.
The telescope is attached to one end of the declination axis, and counterpoised by a weight at the other end, as in fig.
(B) The polar axis is supported as in type A; the telescope is placed between the bearings of the declination axis and is mounted symmetrically with respect to the polar axis; no counterpoise is therefore requisite.
(C) The declination axis is mounted on the prolongation of the upper pivot of the polar axis; the telescope is placed at one end of the declination axis and counterpoised by a weight at the other end.
(D) The declination axis is mounted on a forked piece or other similar contrivance attached to a prolongation of the upper pivot of the polar axis; the telescope is mounted between the pivots of the declination axis.
Mountings of types A and B - that is, with a long polar axis supported at both ends - are often called the" English mounting,"and type C, in which the declination axis is placed on the extension of the upper pivot of the polar axis, is called the" German mounting,"from the first employment of type C by Fraunhofer.
Slow motion in declination can be cornmunicated by a screw acting on a long arm, which latter can be clamped at pleasure to the polar axis.
The peculiar form of the tube is eminently suited for rigid preservation of the relative parallelism of the axes of the two telescopes, so that,;i the image of a certain selected star is retained on the intersection of two wires of the micrometer, by means of the driving clock, aided by small corrections given by the observer in right ascension and declination (required on account of irregularity in the clock movement, error in astronomical adjustment of the polar axis, or changes in the star's apparent place produced by refraction), the image of a star will continue on the same spot of the photographic film during the whole time of exposure.
The declination circle is most inconvenient of access, and slow motion in declination can only be effected when the instrument is clamped by a long and inconvenient handle; so that, practically, clamping in declination was not employed.
The driving circle was greatly increased in diameter and placed at the upper end of the polar axis, and both the polar and declination axes were made much stronger in proportion to the mass of the instrument they were designed to carry.
It is not a little curious that the obvious improvement of trans ferring the declination axis as well as the declination-clamp to the telescope end of the declination axis was so long delayed; we can explain the delay only by the desire to retain the declination circle as a part of the counterpoise.
We believe the first important equatorials in which the declination was read from the eye-end were the 15-in.
Prism i is in the axis of the declination circle and always reflects rays along?
A slight rotatory motion of the telescope E on its axis enables the vernier of the declination circle to be read through prism 1.
The mode of relieving the friction of the declination axis is similar to that employed in the Melbourne telescope and in the account of the Vienna telescope published by Grubb.
The declination circle reads from the eye-end, and four handles for clamping and slow motion in right ascension and declination are situated near the observer's hands.
The lamp near the eye-end illuminates the field or the wires at pleasure, as well as the position circle of the micrometer and the declination circle; a separate lamp illuminates the hour circle.
An excellent feature is the short distance between the eye-piece and the declination axis, so that 1 In the bent telescope refracting prisms are employed at the corners to change the direction of the rays.
This framework is provided with guides on which the platform, whilst preserving its horizontality, is V the observer has to follow the eye-end in a comparatively small circle; another good point is the flattening of the cast-iron centrepiece of the tube so that the flange of the declination axis is attached as near to the axis of the telescope tube as is consistent with free passage of the cone of rays from the object-glass.
Meridian, called the magnetic variation or declination; amongst mariners this angle is known as the variation of the compass.