But such unions were followed again and again by decentralization and disruption.
At the general elections of 1881 after the fall of the Ferry cabinet he was returned to the chamber on a programme which included the separation of Church and State, a policy of decentralization, and the imposition of an income-tax.
Despite superficial decentralization after 1878 any real growth of local self-government was rendered impossible.
The Radicals of Serbia being conservative in all but name, made a working alliance with the clericals of Zagreb and Ljubljana, and under the leadership of Protic favoured decentralization, combined with concessions to the expropriated landowners.
But his unfettered powers in this respect have been reduced under the third Republic. This has chiefly been the effect of the law of the 10th of August 1871, which has led to decentralization, by increasing the powers of the conseils generaux.
Another step in decentralization was taken in 1912 by the subdivision of the former unwieldy territorial division and by the grant of wider initiative to the commissioners of the divisions.
The existing fragments tell us little as to the decentralization of the functions of government, but from the Lex Rubria, which applies to the Transpadane districts enfranchised by Caesar (it must be remembered that Cisalpine Gaul remained nominally a province until 42 B.C.) we gather that considerable powers of independent jurisdiction were reserved to the municipal magistrates.
Fine A rts.Perhaps the chief advantage which Germany has derived from the survival of separate territorial sovereignties within the empire has been the decentralization of culture.
Such a statesman was sure to clash with the doctrinaires, like Salmeron, who wanted to imitate French methods; with Pi y Margall, who wanted a federal republic after purely Spanish ideas of decentralization; and above all with the intransigent and gloomy fanatics who became the leaders of the cantonal insurrections at Cadiz, Seville, Valencia, Malaga and Cartagena in 1873.
He remained in power during five years of unbroken peace (1851-1856), and carried many useful reforms. The most important of these was the so-called Additional Act of the 5th of July 1852, which amended the charter of 1826 by providing for the direct election of deputies, the decentralization of the executive, the creation of representative municipal councils, and the abolition of capital punishment for political offences.
The chief weaknesses in the colonial administration of the territory, particularly prior to 1900 - but only to a slightly less extent since - have been decentralization and a lax civil service.
He was elected a member of the French Academy in 1899, his most notable works being Orateurs et hommes d'etat (1888), Figures de femmes (1889), La Decentralization (1895), La Question sociale (1898).
They drew support from the Parisian democracy, and considered the decentralization of the Girondins as endangering Frances unity, circumstances demanding a strong and highly concentrated government; they opposed a republic on the model of that of Rome to the Polish republic of the Gironde.
Dantonists, came a limitation to the powers of the Committee of Public Safety, now placed in dependence upon the Convention; and next followed the destruction of the revolutionary system, the Girondin decentralization and the resuscitation of departmental governments; the reform of the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 10th of August; the suppression of the Commune of Paris on the 1st of September, and of the salary of forty sous given to members of the sections; the abolition of the maximum, the suppression of the Guillotine, the opening of the j~rjsons, the closing of the Jacobin club (November if), and the henceforward insignificant existence of the popular societies.