Pop. (1906) 9749 It possesses iron mines and is the centre of the coal-fields of the Aveyron, which supply the ironworks established by the Duc Decazes, minister of Louis Xviii.
Elie DECAZES, Duc (1780-1860), French statesman, was born at Saint Martin de Laye in the Gironde.
The Moderates were in a minority in the chamber of 1815, but Decazes persuaded Louis XVIII.
During the next four years Decazes was called upon to play the leading role in the government.
The cabinet, in which Baron Louis was minister of finance, and Marshal Gouvion Saint Cyr remained minister' of war, was entirely Liberal; and its first act was to suppress the ministry of police, as Decazes held that it was incompatible with the regime of liberty.
Dessolle and Louis, refusing to embark on this policy, now resigned; and Decazes became head of the new ministry, as president of the council (November 1819).
Decazes was denounced as the new Sejanus, the modern Catiline; and when, on the 13th of February, the duke of Berry was murdered, clamorous tongues loudly accused him of being an accomplice in the crime.
Decazes, indeed, foreseeing the storm, at once placed his resignation in the king's hands.
But in the end he was forced to yield to the importunity of his family (February 17th); and Decazes, raised to the rank of duke, passed into honourable exile as ambassador to Great Britain.
His son, Louis Charles Elie Decazes, duc de Gliicksberg (1819-1886), was born at Paris, and entered the diplomatic career.
On the Duc Decazes see E.
Et le duc Decazes (1899), and his "L'ambassade du duc Decazes" in the Revue des deux mondes for 1899.
After the murder of the duc de Berry and the enforced retirement of Decazes, he again became president of the council (21st February 1821); but his position was untenable owing to the attacks of the "Ultras" on the one side and the Liberals on the other, and on the 12th of December he again resigned.
Villele's successor was the vicomte de Martignac, who took Decazes for his model; and in the speech from the throne Charles declared that the happiness of France depended on "the sincere union of the royal authority with the liberties consecrated by the charter."
If he had no sympathy with revolutionary disturbers of the peace, he had even less with the fatuous extravagances of the comte d'Artois and his reactionary entourage, and his influence was thrown into the scale of the moderate constitutional policy of which Richelieu and Decazes were the most conspicuous exponents.
Decided on a modification of the franchise; the Dessolle ministry resigned; and the first act of Decazes, the new premier, was to carry a vote in the chamber annulling the election of Gregoire.