Deak was absent.
From that time he resided in Italy; he refused to follow the other Hungarian patriots, who, under the lead of Deak, accepted the composition of 1867; for him there could be no reconciliation with the house of Habsburg, nor would he accept less than full independence and a republic. He would not avail himself of the amnesty, and, though elected to the Diet of 1867, never took his seat.
Amnestied by the emperor of Austria in 1866, he returned home and reentered public life; was from 1867-1876, and again in 1884, a member of the Hungarian Diet, joining the Deak party.
Immediately before the elections, however, Deak succeeded in reuniting all the Liberals on the common platform of " The Ten Points ": (1) Responsible ministries, (2) Popular representation, (3) The incorporation of Transylvania, (4) Right of public meeting, (6) Absolute religious liberty, (7) Universal equality before the law, (8) Universal taxation, (9) The abolition of the Aviticum, an obsolete and anomalous land-tenure, (io) The abolition of serfdom, with compensation to the landlords.
Szechenyi had lost his reason some days before; Edtvds and Deak retired into private life; of the conservative ministers only Batthyány, to his undoing, consented to remain in office, though hardly in power.
3), had foundered on the uncompromising attitude of the Austrian commander, who demanded unconditional submission; whereupon the moderates, including Deak and Batthyany, retired into private life, leaving Kossuth to carry on the struggle with the support of the enthusiastic extremists who constituted the rump of the diet at Debreczen.
After long and violent debates, the diet, on the 8th of August, unanimously adopted an address to the crown, drawn up by Deak, praying for the restoration of the political and territorial integrity of Hungary, for the public coronation of the king with all its accompaniments, and the full restitution of the fundamental laws.
The great majority of the nation naturally desired a composition with its ruler and with Austria, and this general desire was unerringly interpreted and directed by Deak, who carried two-thirds of the deputies along with him.
The Deak party preserved its majority at the elections of 1869, but the Left Centre and Extreme Left returned to the diet considerably reinforced.
After the war of 1866 (in which as a Prussian major-general he organized a Hungarian corps in Silesia) Klapka was permitted by the Austrian government to return to his native country, and in 1867 was elected a member of the Hungarian Chamber of Deputies, in which he belonged to the Deak party.
The conservative leaders of the Hungarian nationalists, Etitv6s and Deak, retired from public life; and, though Batthyani consented to remain in office, the slender hope that this gave of peace was ruined by the flight of the palatine (September 24) and the murder of Count Lamberg, the newly appointed commissioner and commander-in-chief in Hungary, by the mob at Pest (September 27).
Deak and the majority agreed, however, that there should be certain institutions common to Hungary and the rest of the monarchy; these were - (1) foreign affairs, including the diplomatic and consular service; (2) the army and navy; (3) the control of the expenses required for these branches of the public service.
FRANCIS DEAK (FERENCZ), (1803-1876), Hungarian statesman, was born at Sojtor in the county of Zala, on the 17th of October 1803.
During the diet of 1839-1840 Deak succeeded in bringing about an understanding between a reactionary government, sadly in want of money, and a Liberal opposition determined that the nation should have its political privileges respected.
" Let us put all jealousy on one side and allow him the pre-eminence," wrote Szechenyi of Deak (April 30th, 1840).
Deak would not go to the diet of 1843-1844, though he had received a mandate, because his election was the occasion of bloodshed in the struggle between the Clericals who would have ousted him and the Liberals who brought him in.
After 1854 he spent the greater part of his time at Pest, and his little room at the " Queen of England " inn became the meeting-place for those patriots who in those dark days looked to the wisdom of Deak for guidance.
His principles alienated him from the Kossuth faction, which looked for salvation to a second war with Austria, engineered from abroad; but he was equally opposed to the attitude of resignation taken up by the followers of Szechenyi, who, according to Deak, always regarded the world from a purely provincial point of view.
The war of 1859 convinced the Austrian government, at last, of the necessity of a reconciliation with Hungary; but the ensuing negotiations were conducted not through Deak, but through the Magyar Conservatives.
The Patent of the 20th of February 1861 increased the uneasiness and suspicion of the nation; but Deak, now one of the deputies for Pest, was in favour of an address rather than of a.
The speech which Deak made on this occasion was his finest effort.
The Magyar Conservatives hereupon entered into negotiations with Deak, and the Austrian government, more than ever convinced of the necessity of a reconciliation, was ready to take the first step, if Hungary would take the second and third.
Deak now proposed that the sovereign himself should break away from counsellors who had sought to oppress Hungary, and should restore the constitution as a personal act.
After KOniggratz the extreme parties in Hungary hoped to extort still more favourable terms from the emperor; but Deak remained true to himself and to the constitutional principle.
The diet was resummoned on the 17th of November 1866 and, chiefly through the efforts of Deak, the responsible ministry was formed (February 17th, 1867).
The consciousness of these great services even reconciled him to the loss of much of his popularity; for there can be no doubt that a large part of the Hungarian nation regarded the Composition of 1867 as a sort of surrender and blamed Deak as the author of it.
Ferenczi, Life of Deak (Hung., Budapest, 1894); Memorials, of Ferencz Dedk (Hung., Budapest, 1889-1890); Ferencz Pulszky, Charakterskizze (Leipzig, 1876).