936, when Hywel Dda, prince of South Wales, enacted a law for their protection.
King Howel Dda (i.e.
Howel Dda, king of West Wales, Owen, king of Cumbria, Constantine, king of the Scots, and Ealdred of Bamburgh, and henceforth he calls himself "rex totius Britanniae."
Howel, son of Cadell, commonly known as Howel Dda the Good, is ever celebrated in Welsh history as the framer, or rather the codifier, of the ancient laws of his country, which were promulgated to the people at his hunting lodge, Ty Gwyn ar Taf, near the modern Whitland.
The laws of Howel Dda throw a flood of interesting light upon the ancient customs and ideas of early medieval Wales, but as their standard of justice is founded on a tribal arid not a territorial system of society, it is easy to understand the antipathy with which the Normans subsequently came to regard this famous code.
The more important rules for initial mutation are the following: the soft mutation occurs in a feminine singular noun after the article, thus y fam, " the mother " (radical mam); in an adjective following a feminine singular noun, as in mam dda, " a good mother " (da, " good "); in a noun following a positive adjective, as in hen dd9n, " old man," because this order represents what was originally a compound; in a noun following dy, " thy," and ei, " his," thus dy ben," thy head," ei ben, " his head " (pen," head "); in the object after a verb; in a noun after a simple preposition; in a verb after the relative a.