His later life was spent in various parts of the Moslem world, in Aleppo with Saif-ud-Daula (to whom he dedicated the Book of Songs), in Rai with the Buyid vizier Ibn `Abbad and elsewhere.
In the 10th century the centre of interest is in the court of Saif ud-Daula (addaula) at Aleppo.
Abu Firas (932-968) was a member of the family of Saif ud-Daula, a soldier whose poems have all the charm that comes from the fact that the writer has lived through the events he narrates (ed.
In the 8th century the fertility of the valley attracted the attention of Najib-ud-daula, governor of Saharanpur, who invaded it with an army of Rohillas in 1757 and annexed it to his dominion.
In 994 Mahmud was made governor of Khorasan, with the title of Saif addaula (ud-daula) ("Sword of the State") by thee Samanid Nuh II.
Later the brothers Nasir ad-Daula and Saif ad-Daula ruled over Mesopotamia and North Syria respectively.
The northern districts were granted by Ali Mahommed to Najib Khan, who gradually extended his influence west of the Ganges and at Delhi, receiving the title of Najib-ud-daula and becoming paymaster of the royal forces.
The town of Arcot, together with the whole of the territory of the Carnatic, passed into the hands of the British in 1801, upon the formal resignation of the government by the nawab, Azim-ud-daula, who received a liberal pension.
His successors were Zahir addaula (ud-daula, ed-dowleh) Abu Mansur Washmagir (935967), Bistun (967976), Shams al Maali Qabus (97&1o12), Falak al Maali Manushahr (1012-1029), Anushirw~n (1029-1042).
Zeno states that in the following year Ismail entered upon a new campaign in Kurdistan and Asia Minor, but that he returned to Tabriz without accomplishing his object, having been harassed by the tactics of Ala ud-Daula, a beylerbey, or governor in Armenia and parts of Syria.
A member of the royal family, the asafu d-daula, governor of Khorasan, left his government to urge his candidature for the post.
Mahiati otherwise known as the chief of the Assassins; a new rupture with Turkey; the banishment of the asafud-daula, governor of Khorasan, followed by the insurrection and defeat of his son; and the rise of Bbiism (q.v).
Tile rebellion of the asafu d-daula, maternal uncle of the shah, was punished by exile, while his son, after giving trouble to his opponents, and once gaining a victory over them, took shelter with the Turcomans.
It has been stated that the asafu d-daula was a competitor with Hajji Mirza Aghasi for the post of premier in the cabinet of Mahommed Shah, that he was afterwards, in the same reign, exiled for rising in.
At Bushire, on the 1st of December, the Persian governor of Fars, Ala ad-daula, committed a breach of diplomatic etiquette which induced Lord Curzon to sail away without landing.
This incident was considered by some British observers to have been brought about by Russian intrigue, and the fact that Ala ad-daula was dismissed in 1904, after the Japanese had achieved several initial successes in the Russo-Japanese war, was held to confirm this opinion.