And S., and by the Russian provinces of Ferghana, Syr-darya, and Akmolinsk on the W.
There the Volga, the Ural, the Syr-darya and the Amu-darya discharge their waters without reaching the ocean, but they bring life to the rapidly desiccating Transcaspian steppes, and link together the most remote parts of Russia.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
In 1905 a second totally independent line was opened from Tashkent down the Syr-darya to Kazalinsk, and thence to Orenburg.
The area between the northern border of the Persian high lands and the Caspian and Aral Seas is a nearly desert low-lying plain, extending to the foot of the north - western extremity of the great Tibeto-Himalayan mountains, and prolonged east- Trans- ward up the valleys of the Oxus (Amu-Darya) and Caspian Jaxartes (Syr-Darya), and northward across the country re ior, and of the Kirghiz to the south-western border of Siberia.
KUNGRAD, a trading town of Asiatic Russia, in the province of Syr-darya, in the delta of the Amu-darya, 50 m.
Omar was a poet and patron of learning, but continued to enlarge his kingdom, taking the sacred town of Azret (Turkestan), and to protect Ferghana from the raids of the nomad Kirghiz built fortresses on the Syr-darya, which became a basis for raids of the Khokand people into Kirghiz land.
Several petty wars were undertaken by the Russians after 1847 to destroy the Khokand forts, and to secure possession, first, of the Ili (and so of Dzungaria), and next of the Syr-darya region, the result being that in 1866, after the occupation of Ura-tyube and Jizakh, the khanate of Khokand was separated from Bokhara.
For about twenty years it would seem that the Yue-Chi were settled in the country between the rivers Chu and Syr-Darya, but here they were attacked again by the Hiung-nu, their old enemies, with whom was the son of the defeated Wusun chieftain.
After serving as divisional chief of the staff in Poland, he went to Orenburg in 1858 as assistant to the commander of the line of the Syr-Darya, and the following year commanded an expedition to support the Kirghiz tribes on the borders of the Sea of Aral against the Khivans.
The latter range is separated from the Karakorum Mountains by the deeply trenched gorge of the Raskem or Yarkand-darya, while the deep glen of the Kara-kash or Khotan-darya intervenes between the upper (Sughet Mountains) and the lower (Kilian Mountains) border-ranges.
From the transverse breach of the Keriya-darya (about 811° E.) to that of the Kara-muren in the longitude of Cherchen (about 852° E.) the parallel border-ranges of the Tibetan plateau trend to the E.N.E., and here occur in the lower or outer range the passes of Dalai-kurghan-art (14,290 ft.), Choka-davan, i.e.
- Between the upper transverse glens of the Karamuren (or Mitt River) and the Cherchen-darya stretches the short range of Tokuz-davan.
In the western parts of the system they mostly go to feed the Kara-muren or the Cherchen-darya, while farther east they flow down into some larger self-contained basin of internal drainage, such as the Achik-kol, the two lakes Kara-kol, or the Ghaz-kol, and even yet farther east make their way, some of them into the lakes of the Tsaidam depression or become lost in its sands or in those of the Kum-tagh desert on the north, or go to feed the headstreams of the great rivers, the Hwang-ho (Yellow River) and the Yangtsze-kiang (Blue River) in the south.
In the western part of this valley occurs the very important transverse water-divide of Gulcha-davan (14,150 ft.), which separates the basin of the Cherchen-darya that goes down into the Tarim basin from the area that drains down to the Ghaz-kol, which belongs to the Tsaidam depression.
CHIMKENT, a town of Asiatic Russia, in the province of Syr-darya, 70 m.
It lies on the right bank of the middle Oxus, between 37° and 41° N., and between 62° and 72° E., and is bounded by the Russian governments of Syr-darya, Samarkand and Ferghana on the N., the Pamirs on the E., Afghanistan on the S., and the Transcaspian territory and Khiva on the W.
The chief river of Bokhara is the Oxus or Amu-darya, which separates it from Afghanistan on the south, and then flows along its south-west border.
The Kashka-darya, which flows westwards out of the glaciers of Hazret-sultan (west of the Hissar range), supplies the Shahri-sabs (properly Shaarsabiz) oasis with water, but is lost in the desert to the west of Karshi.
Syr-Darya River >>
Mr Littledale, an Englishman, accompanied by his wife, left Khotan in the early part of 1895, and travelling thence to St George R.Cherchen, he turned southwards, and following up Littledale, the course of the Cherchen darya to a point near its 1895.
The Great Table, a rectangular stone seen by Tavernier in 1642 at Golconda, was found by him to weigh 242 1 - 3 6 - carats; Maskelyne regards it as identical with the Darya-i-nur, which is also a rectangular stone weighing about 186 carats in the possession of the shah of Persia.
CASPIAN SEA (anc. Mare Caspium or Mare Hyrcanium; Russian, Kaspiyskoe More, formerly Hvalynskoe More; Persian, Darya-i-Khyzyr or Gurzem; Tatar, Ak-denghiz; the Sikirn and Jurjan of the ancient Eastern geographers), an inland sea between Europe and Asia, extending from 36° 4 o' to 47° 20' N.
The Ust-Urt recedes from the Caspian and circles round the Gulf of Kara-boghaz or Kara-bugaz (also called Aji-darya and Kuli-darya).
How far they reach up the present courses of the Oxus (Amu-darya) and Jaxartes (Syr-darya) is not known.
Above its confluence with the Syr-darya, in 40° 20' N., 69° 18' E.
The southern coast is occupied by the delta of the Oxus (Phan, Amu-darya), one of the arms of which, the Laudan, forms a swamp, 80 m.
The only other tributary of any size that the sea receives is the Jaxartes (Sihun, Syr-darya) which enters towards the northern extremity of the east coast, and is suspected to be shifting its embouchure more and more to the north.
This river, as well as the Amu, conveys vast quantities of sediment into the lake; the delta of the Syr-darya increased by 134 sq.
Kug-Aral, the largest, lies opposite the mouth of the Syr-darya, cutting off the Kichkinehdenghiz or Little Sea.
This is, of course, due to the excess of evaporation over the amount of water supplied by its two feeders, the Amu-darya and the Syrdarya, both of which are seriously drawn upon for irrigation in all the oases they flow through.
BACTRIA (Bactriana), the ancient name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Paropamisus) and the Oxus (Amu Darya), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh); in the Persian inscriptions Bakhtri.
OXUS, or AMU Darya, one of the great rivers of Central Asia.
The plateau is traversed by the Surkhab or Vakhsh, a right-hand tributary of the Amu-darya (Oxus).
Hasta (hand) zasta dasta dast jrayas (sea) zrayo daraya darya aham (I) azem adam !siso Old Persian has no special 1.
YARKAND (Chinese name Soche Fu), the chief town of the principal oasis of Chinese Turkestan, on the Yarkand-Darya, in 38° 25' N., 77° 16' E., and 3900 ft.
The Yarkand-Darya and its numerous tributaries, which are fed by the glaciers of the mountain regions, as also many rivers which are now lost in the steppe or amidst the irrigated fields, bring abundance of water to the desert; one of them is called Zarafshan ("gold-strewing"), as much on account of the fertility it brings as of its auriferous sands.