Follen, was born at Romrod in Hesse-Darmstadt, on the 5th of September 1795.
In 1820 he retired with a pension his estate at Hornau, near Hochst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take an active share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of his country.
He died at Darmstadt on the 22nd of May 1880.
Then I hope to divide up Germany into categories based on German states - perhaps something along the lines of Category:Prussia, Category:Bavaria, Category:WÃ¼rttemberg, Category:Baden, Category:Hesse-Darmstadt, Category:Saxony, and Category:Small German states, or some such.
See Drandar, Le Prince Alexandre de Battenberg en Bulgarie (Paris, 1884); Koch, Fiirst Alexander von Bulgarien (Darmstadt, 1887); Matveyev, Bulgarien nach dem Berliner Congress (Petersburg, 1887); Bourchier, "Prince Alexander of Battenberg," in Fortnightly Review, January 1894.
See the autobiographical Aus dem Leben eines alien Professors (Leipzig and Darmstadt, 1848), to which was added in the year of his death Paralipomena der Lebenskizze eines alien Professors (Frankfort, 1858); also Starck, Friederich Kreuzer, sein Bildungsgang and seine bleibende Bedeutung (Heidelberg, 1875).
He retired to Darmstadt, where he practised as a physician and contributed regularly to pathological and physiological magazines.
He died at Darmstadt on the 1st of May 1899.
INGELHEIM (Ober-Ingelheim and Nieder-Ingelheim), the name of two contiguous market-towns of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Selz, near its confluence with the Rhine, 9 m.
In 1800 Borkhausen with others commenced at Darmstadt a Teutsche Ornithologie in folio which appeared at intervals till 1812, and remains unfinished, though a reissue of the portion published took place between 1837 and 1841.
HESSE-DARMSTADT, a grand-duchy in Germany, the history of which begins with the partition of Hesse in 1567.
(1547-1597), the youngest son of the landgrave Philip, received the upper county of Katzenelnbogen, and, selecting Darmstadt as his residence, became the founder of the Hesse-Darmstadt line.
(1605-1661), sided with the imperialists in the Thirty Years' War, during which Hesse-Darmstadt suffered very severely from the ravages of the Swedes.
1768), another dispute occurred between Darmstadt and Cassel; this time it was over the succession to the county of Hanau, which was eventually divided, Hesse-Darmstadt receiving Lichtenberg.
Soon the growing desire for liberty made itself felt in Hesse, and in 1820 Louis gave a constitution to the land; various forms were carried through; the system of government was reorganized, and in 1828 Hesse-Darmstadt joined the Prussian Zollverein.
In 1867 Louis entered the North German Confederation, but only for his lands north of the Main, and in 1871 Hesse-Darmstadt became one of the states of the new German empire.
Baur, Urkunden zur hessischen Landes-, Ortsand Familiengeschichte (Darmstadt, 1846-1873); Steiner, Geschichte des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 18 3318 34); Klein, Das Grossherzogtum Hessen (Mainz, 1861); Ewald, Historische Ubersicht der Territorialverdnderungen der Landgrafschaft Hessen and des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 1872); F.
Weber, Verfassungs-und Verwaltungsrecht des Grossherzogtums Hessen (Darmstadt, 1894-1897); H.
Zeller, Handbuch der Verfassung and Verwaltung im Grossherzogtum Hessen (Darmstadt, 1885-1893).
See also Archiv fitir hessische Geschichte and Altertumskunde (Darmstadt, 1894 fol.) and Hessisches Urkundenbuch (Leipzig, 1879 fol.).
The area and population of the three provinces of Hesse are as follow: The chief towns of the grand duchy are Darmstadt (the capital) and Offenbach in Starkenburg, Mainz and Worms in Rheinhessen and Giessen in Oberhessen.
The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had different boundaries and areas at different times.
When he died in 1567 Hesse was divided between his four sons into Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Marburg and Hesse-Rheinfels.
After the annexation of Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Homburg by Prussia in 1866 Hesse-Darmstadt remained the only independent part of Hesse, and it generally receives the common name.
Gundlach, Hesse and die Mainzer Stiftsfehde (Marburg, 1899); Walther, Literarisches Handbuch fir Geschichte and Landeskunde von Hesse (Darmstadt, 1841; Supplement, 1850-1869); K.
By Bauerkeller of Darmstadt and Dondorf at Frankfort, from originals furnished by A.
The system of the quadratic and cubic, consisting of 15 forms, and that of two cubics, consisting of 26 forms, were obtained by Salmon and Clebsch; that of the cubic and quartic we owe to Sigmund Gundelfinger (Programm Stuttgart, 186 9, 1 -43); that of the quadratic and quintic to Winter (Programm Darmstadt, 1880); that of the quadratic and sextic to von Gall (Programm Lemgo, 3873); that of two quartics to Gordan (Math.
It was commanded by Prince Alexander of Hesse; the 1st division (3 infantry brigades, i cavalry brigade, 6 batteries) came from Wurttemberg; the 2nd division (2 infantry and I cavalry brigades, 5 batteries) from Baden, the least anti-Prussian of all these states; the 3rd division (2 infantry and i cavalry brigades, i rifle battalion, 4 batteries) from Hesse-Darmstadt; the 4th division consisted of an Austrian brigade of 7 battalions (three of which were Italians), a Nassau brigade, and two batteries and some hussars of Hesse-Cassel.
The centre of the rayon of the 8th corps was Darmstadt, and the Bavarian line extended from Coburg to Gemiinden.
After the war of 1866, Prussia negotiated with Baden, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt with a view to the removal of all tolls.
LIEBIG, JUSTUS VON, Baron (1803-1873), German chemist, was born at Darmstadt, according to his baptismal certificate, on the 12th of May 1803 (4th of May, according to his mother).
Having determined to make chemistry his profession, at the age of fifteen he entered the shop of an apothecary at Appenheim, near Darmstadt; -but he soon found how great is the difference between practical pharmacy and scientific chemistry, and the explosions and other incidents that accompanied his private efforts to increase his chemical knowledge disposed his master to view without regret his departure at the end of ten months.
In 1822, he left Erlangen - where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the "greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life - and by the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled to go to Paris.
As a native of Hesse-Darmstadt he ought, according to the academical rules of the time, to have studied and graduated at the university of Giessen, and it was only through the influence of Humboldt that the authorities forgave him for straying to the foreign university of Erlangen.
At Darmstadt he made the acquaintance of Caroline Flachsland, to whom he soon became betrothed, and who for the rest of his life supplied him with that abundance of consolatory sympathy which his sensitive and rather querulous nature appeared to require.
He co-operated with a band of young writers at Darmstadt and Frankfort, including Goethe, who in a journal of their own sought to diffuse the new ideas.
By the kingdom of Bavaria and the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; W.
Et le prince de Kaunitz (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters see Comte de Reiset, Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette a la landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt (1865); id.
4 Manuscript copies are preserved at Heidelberg, Darmstadt, Frankfort, Giessen, Cassel and other places.
The next marriage after the princess royal's was that of the princess Alice to Prince Louis (afterwards grand duke) of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1862.
Meanwhile Queen Victoria spent some weeks at Florence at the Villa Palmieri, and returned home by Darmstadt and Berlin.
She returned as usual by way of Darmstadt, and shortly after her arrival at Windsor paid a visit to Baron Ferdinand Rothschild at Waddesdon Manor.
In 1806, during the long reign of the landgrave Frederick V., which extended from 1751 to 1820, Hesse-Homburg was mediatized, and incorporated with Hesse-Darmstadt; but in 1815 by the congress of Vienna the latter state was compelled to recognize the independence of Hesse-Homburg, which was increased by the addition of Meisenheim.
When he died on the 24th of March 1866, Hesse-Homburg was inherited by Louis III., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, while Meisenheim fell to Prussia.
Von Heinemann, Albrecht der Bar (Darmstadt, 1864).
(1815) Hesse-Darmstadt surrendered her share of Westphalia to Prussia, and the present province was constituted.
HEPPENHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Bergstrasse, between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, 21 m.
NIERSTEIN, a village of Germany, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the left bank of the Rhine, 8 m.
On plural dedications consult Maurer, De aribus graecorum pluribus deis in commune positis (Darmstadt, 1885).
His son, Maurice the Learned (1592-16.27), turned Protestant in 1605, became involved later in the Thirty Years' War, and, after being forced to cede some of his territories to the Darmstadt line, abdicated in favour of his son William V.
Of the various orders founded by the houses of HesseCassel and Hesse-Darmstadt the following are still bestowed in the grand duchy of Hesse.
Of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1807; there are five classes; the black, red and gold bordered cross bears the initial L.
An entire skull, obtained from the Lower Pliocene beds of Eppelsheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1836, measured 41ft.
By the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the S.E.
KEKULE, FRIEDRICH AUGUST (1829-1896), German chemist, was born at Darmstadt on the 7th of September 1829.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
The chief seat of the leather industry is Hesse-Darmstadt, in which Mainz and Worms produce excellent material.
The board responsible for the imperial control over the whole railway system in Germany is the Reichseisenbahnamt in Berlin, the administration of the various state systems residing, in Prussia, in the ministry of public works; in Bavaria in the ministry of the royal house and of the exterior; in Wurttemberg in the ministry of the exterior; in Saxony in the ministry of the interior; in Baden and- Hesse-Darmstadt in commissions of the ministry of finance; and in Alsace-Lorraine in the imperial ministry of railways.
These schools are as follows: Berlin (Charlottenburg), Munich, Darmstadt, Karlsruhe, Hanover, Dresden, Stuttgart, Aix-la-Chapelle, Brunswick and Danzig; in 1908 they were attended by 14,149 students (2531 foreigners), and had a teaching staff of 753.
Frankfurt-am-Main (Hesse Darmstadt, Main country); XIX.
In the so-called narrower assembir (Engere Versammlung), for the transaction of ordinary business, Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Holstein and Luxemburg had one vote each; while the remaining twenty-eight states were divided into six curiae, of which each had but a single vote.
Separate treaties of peace had been signed with Wurttemberg on the 1 3th, with Baden on the 17th and with Bavaria on the 22nd of August; treaties with Hesse-Darmstadt followed on the 3rd of September, with Saxe-Meiningen on the 8th of October and with Saxony on the 2 1st.
And Hesse-Darmstadt, where the opposition to Prussia was less severe, a powerful minority of the deputies had no liking for Bismarck and his ways.
Volk, Der Odenwald and seine Nachbargebiete (Stuttgart, 1900), and Windhaus, Fiihrer durch den Odenwald (Darmstadt, 1903).
Franck, Geschichte der ehemaligen Reichsstadt Oppenheim (Darmstadt, 1859).