He was through the Cicilian Gates before the Persian king, Darius III., had sent up a force adequate to hold them.
His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.
To cut Alexander's communications with the rear, Darius now committed the error of entangling his large force in the mountain defiles.
Alexander turned, and near the town of Issus fought his second pitched battle, sending Darius and the relic of his army in wild flight back to the east.'
It was near Nineveh that Darius was waiting with the immense host which a supreme effort could muster from all parts of the empire.
Darius fled eastwards into Media and again Alexander waited till he had secured the provinces to the south.
Darius fled northwards from Ecbatana upon his approach.
He had become a puppet in the hands of his cousin Bessus and the Persian magnates with him (see Darius and at this extremity they stabbed him and allowed Alexander to become master only of his corpse (summer 330).
In Asia Alexander learnt that Bessus had taken the diadem as Darius' successor in Bactria, but so soon as he marched against him Aria rose in his rear, and Alexander had to return in all haste to bring the revolt under.
Death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.
The book of Haggai contains four short prophecies delivered between the first day of the sixth month and the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month - that is, between September and December - of the second year of Darius the king.
The king in question must be Darius Hystaspis (521-485 B.C.).
The fraud was short-lived, and Darius I.
Hence the kings buried at Nakshi Rustam are probably, besides Darius, Xerxes I., Artaxerxes I.
And Darius II.
The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III.
Since Cyrus was buried in Pasargadae, which moreover is mentioned in Ctesias as his own city,' and since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I., it was probably under this king, with whom the sceptre passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital 4 (see Persia: Ancient History, V.
The locality described by Diodorus after Cleitarchus corresponds in important particulars with Takhti Jamshid, for example, in being supported by the ' This statement is not made in Ctesias (or rather in the extracts of Photius) about Darius II., which is probably accidental; in the case of Sogdianus, who as a usurper was not deemed worthy of honourable burial, there is a good reason for the omission.
The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes.
See also Darius; Persia: Ancient History; and Caliphate.
Brother of Darius I., and, according to Herodotus, the trusted adviser of his nephew Xerxes.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
1311 b, he had previously killed Xerxes' son Darius, and was afraid that the father would avenge him; according to Ctesias, Pers.
69, he killed Xerxes first and then pretended that Darius had murdered him, and instigated his brother Artaxerxes to avenge the parricide.
"This land Persis," says Darius, in an inscription at Persepolis, "which Ahuramazda has given to me, which is beautiful and rich in horses and men, according to the will of Ahuramazda and myself it trembles before no enemy."
The "enemies," a general name of the rapacious nomads, used also for the Turanian tribes), Mardi, Dropici, Sagartii (called by Darius Asagarta, in the central desert; cf.
But from then only the inhabitants of Persis proper were considered as the rulers of the empire, and remained therefore in the organization of Darius free from taxes (Herod.
But Carmania, with the Sagartians, the Utians (called by Darius Yautiya), and other tribes, formed a satrapy and paid tribute (Herod.
When Darius had killed the usurper Smerdis and gained the crown, a new usurper, Vahyazdata, who likewise pretended to 1 To the Pateiskhoreis belongs the lance-bearer of Darius, "Gobryas (Gaubaruva) the Patishuvari," mentioned in his tombinscription; they occur also in an inscription of Esarhaddon as Patush-ara, eastwards of Media, in Choarene at the Caspian gates; the Kyrtii are the Kurds.
Darius founded a new city about 30 m.
So the Persian kings fixed their residence at Susa, which is always considered as the capital of the empire (therefore Aeschylus wrongly considers it as a Persian town and places the tomb of Darius here).
The legends are in Aramaic characters and Persian (Pahlavi) language; among them occur Artaxerxes, Darius (from a dynast of this name the town Darabjird, "town of Darius," in eastern Persia seems to derive its name), Narses, Tiridates, Manocihr and others; the name Vahuburz seems to be identical with Oborzos, mentioned by Polyaenus vii.
Attempted to restore the old empire of Cyrus and Darius, and in 212 A.D.
In the reign of Darius, however, the Susianians attempted to revolt, first under Assina or Atrina, the son of Umbadara, and later under Martiya, the son of Issainsakria, who called himself Immanes; but they gradually became completely Aryanized, and their agglutinative dialects were supplanted by the Aryan Persian from the south-east.
(2) A Persian, father of Darius I., under whose reign he was governor of Parthia, as Darius himself mentions in the Behistun inscription (2.65).
At the battle of Pellene), and his descendants, by the oracles of Onomacritus, persuaded Darius to undertake their restoration.
2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
Also, the revolt which broke out in the Persian provinces at this juncture may have extended to Palestine; although) the usurper Darius encountered his most serious opposition in the north and north-east of his empire.
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
Towards the close of the reign of Darius there was a fresh revolt in Egypt; it was quelled by Xerxes (485-465), who did not imitate the religious tolerance of his predecessors.
Under Darius Codomannus (336-330) the advancing Greek power brought matters to a head, and at the battle of Issus in 333 Alexander settled its fate.
- lxvi.; Malachi), but a consecutive sketch is impossible.4 1 Thus a decree of Darius I.
2 In addition to this, the Egyptian story of the priest Uza-hor at the court of Cambyses and Darius reflects a policy of religious tolerance which illustrates the biblical account of Ezra and Nehemiah (Brugsch, Gesch.
The next historical notice is dated in the second year of Darius (520) when two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, came forward to kindle the Judaeans to new efforts, and in spite of opposition the work went steadily onwards, thanks to the favour of Darius, until the Temple was completed four years later (Ezra v.
The account ascribed to the time of Darius, Ezra v.
12),which otherwise is quite ignored, appears to have been used for the times of Darius (i Esdras iv.
7; but the assumption that Darius, as in i Esdras, helped the Jews against them can with difficulty be maintained.
12; but both in a context relating to the history of the Temple), and (b) by the otherwise inaccurate statement that the Temple was finished according to the decree of " Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes king of Persia " (Ezra vi.
Before Cambyses set out to Egypt, he secretly caused him to be murdered (Darius in the Behistun Inscr.