The fraud was short-lived, and Darius I.
His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.
To cut Alexander's communications with the rear, Darius now committed the error of entangling his large force in the mountain defiles.
Alexander turned, and near the town of Issus fought his second pitched battle, sending Darius and the relic of his army in wild flight back to the east.'
It was near Nineveh that Darius was waiting with the immense host which a supreme effort could muster from all parts of the empire.
Darius fled eastwards into Media and again Alexander waited till he had secured the provinces to the south.
Darius fled northwards from Ecbatana upon his approach.
In Asia Alexander learnt that Bessus had taken the diadem as Darius' successor in Bactria, but so soon as he marched against him Aria rose in his rear, and Alexander had to return in all haste to bring the revolt under.
Death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.
The book of Haggai contains four short prophecies delivered between the first day of the sixth month and the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month - that is, between September and December - of the second year of Darius the king.
The king in question must be Darius Hystaspis (521-485 B.C.).
Occupants of these seven tombs were kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Nakshi Rustam is expressly declared in its inscription to be the tomb of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by means of an apparatus of ropes.
And Darius II.
The unfinished one is perhaps that of Arses, who reigned at the longest two years, or, if not his, then that of Darius III.
The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes.
See also Darius; Persia: Ancient History; and Caliphate.
Brother of Darius I., and, according to Herodotus, the trusted adviser of his nephew Xerxes.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
1311 b, he had previously killed Xerxes' son Darius, and was afraid that the father would avenge him; according to Ctesias, Pers.
69, he killed Xerxes first and then pretended that Darius had murdered him, and instigated his brother Artaxerxes to avenge the parricide.
"This land Persis," says Darius, in an inscription at Persepolis, "which Ahuramazda has given to me, which is beautiful and rich in horses and men, according to the will of Ahuramazda and myself it trembles before no enemy."
The "enemies," a general name of the rapacious nomads, used also for the Turanian tribes), Mardi, Dropici, Sagartii (called by Darius Asagarta, in the central desert; cf.
But from then only the inhabitants of Persis proper were considered as the rulers of the empire, and remained therefore in the organization of Darius free from taxes (Herod.
But Carmania, with the Sagartians, the Utians (called by Darius Yautiya), and other tribes, formed a satrapy and paid tribute (Herod.
Darius founded a new city about 30 m.
So the Persian kings fixed their residence at Susa, which is always considered as the capital of the empire (therefore Aeschylus wrongly considers it as a Persian town and places the tomb of Darius here).
The legends are in Aramaic characters and Persian (Pahlavi) language; among them occur Artaxerxes, Darius (from a dynast of this name the town Darabjird, "town of Darius," in eastern Persia seems to derive its name), Narses, Tiridates, Manocihr and others; the name Vahuburz seems to be identical with Oborzos, mentioned by Polyaenus vii.
Attempted to restore the old empire of Cyrus and Darius, and in 212 A.D.
In the reign of Darius, however, the Susianians attempted to revolt, first under Assina or Atrina, the son of Umbadara, and later under Martiya, the son of Issainsakria, who called himself Immanes; but they gradually became completely Aryanized, and their agglutinative dialects were supplanted by the Aryan Persian from the south-east.
(2) A Persian, father of Darius I., under whose reign he was governor of Parthia, as Darius himself mentions in the Behistun inscription (2.65).
Before Cambyses set out to Egypt, he secretly caused him to be murdered (Darius in the Behistun Inscr.
The real name of the usurper was, as Darius tells us, Gaumata, a Magian priest from Media; this name has been preserved by Justin i.
But, as Darius said, nobody had the courage to oppose the new king, who ruled for seven months over the whole empire.
Darius says that he destroyed some temples, which Darius restored, and took away the herds and houses of the people (Behistun Inscr.
We have no means of explaining this statement, nor can we fully understand all the incidents connected with his usurpation; but the attempts of modern authors to prove that Gaumata in reality was the genuine Smerdis and Darius a usurper have failed.
It was inhabited by an Iranian tribe, the Parthava of the inscriptions of Darius; the correct Greek form is HapOvaioc. Parthia became a province of the Achaemenian and then of the Macedonian Empire.
Here Arsaces and his brother Tiridates are derived from the royal house of the Achaemenids, probably from Artaxerxes II.; the young Tiridates is insulted by the prefect Agathocles or Pherecles; in revenge the brothers with five companions (corresponding to the seven Persians of Darius) slay him, and Arsaces becomes king.
At the root of the work lies a theory, whencesoever derived, which identified the Goths with the Scythians, whose country Darius Hystaspes invaded, and with the Getae of Dacia, whom Trajan conquered.
78, one of the associates of Darius), then Maraphis (eponym of the Maraphian tribe), then another Artaphrenes, then Darius.
64, called by Darius Haumavarka); and the historians of Alexander mention a march through Gedrosia, where he lost his whole army but seven men (Arrian vi.
Cyrus The Younger, Son of Darius II.