The basin of the Ghazal is a large one, extending north-west to Darfur, and south-west to the Congo watershed.
Reinforced by intermittent streams from the hills of Darfur and by considerable rivers flowing north from Dar Fertit, this river after reaching as far north as about io° 30' pursues a general south-easterly direction until it joins the Ghazal 87 m.
Omdurman is the headquarters of the native traders in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the chief articles of commerce being ivory, ostrich feathers and gum arabic from Darfur and Kordofan.
The town and district form a small ethnographical island, having been peopled in the 18th century by a colony of Takruri from Darfur, who, finding the spot a convenient resting-place for their fellow-pilgrims on their way to Mecca and back, obtained permission from the negus of Abyssinia to make a permanent settlement.
On it converge various trade routes, notably from Darfur and from Dueim, a town on the White Nile 125 m.
All the trade with Darfur passes through the town, the chief commerce being in cattle, feathers, ivory and cotton goods.
The Sennari however suffered a decisive defeat in 1784 and thereafter under Darfur viceroys the country enjoyed prosperity.
At this time the power and prestige of the khalifa were at their height: the rebellions in Darfur and Kordofan had been stamped out, the anti-mahdi was dead, and even the dervish defeat by the Abyssinians had been converted by the death of King John and the capture of his body into a success.
Darfur and Kordofan.On the outbreak of the mahdis rebellion Slatin Bey was governor of the province, and when Madibbo, the insurgent sheikh of Rizighat, attacked and occupied Shakka and was following up his success, Slatin twice severely defeated him, and, having concentrated his forces at El Fasher, repulsed the enemy again at Om Shanga.
Mahdism, however, spread over Darfur in spite of Slatins efforts to stay it He fought no fewer than twenty-seven actions in various parts of his province, but his own troops, in course of time, became infected with the new faith and deserted him.
In 189f Darfur and Kordofan were again disturbed, and Sultan Abbas succeeded in turning the dervishes out of the Jebel Marra district.
Later it became a halting-place for the caravans of slaves brought from Darfur to Egypt.
By a second firman of the same date Mehemet Ali was invested with the government of Nubia, Darfur, Khordofan and Sennaar, with their dependencies.
Through Omdurman come the exports of Kordofan and Darfur, while by the Red Sea railway there is ready access to the markets of the world.
Such are the Mandingo, the Songhai, the Fula, Hausa, Kanuri, Bagirmi, Kanembu, and the peoples of Wadai and Darfur; the few aborigines who persist, on the southern fringe of the Chad basin, are imperfectly known.
North of Darfur is the Libyan Desert, in which the western and northern frcntiers meet.
Farther west, in Darfur, the country is more elevated, the Jebel Marra range being from 5000 to 6000 ft.
The steppe countries, Kordofan and Darfur, are also healthy except after the autumn rains.
In the steppe regions of Kordofan, Darfur, &c., and in the Nubian Desert ostriches are fairly plentiful.
Excluding Darfur the population before the Mandist rule was estimated at 8,500,000.
- Darfur is under native rule.
El Fasher, the capital of Darfur, is 500 m.
In Kordofan and Darfur cultivation is confined to the khors or valleys.
Dates are also a staple produce in Darfur and Kordofan.
There is lignite in the Dongola mudiria and iron ore is found in Darfur, southern Kordofan and in the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
At that time the sultans of Darfur (q.v.) in the west and the sultans or kings of Sennar (the Funj rulers) in the east were the most powerful of the Mahommedan potentates.
(Some of them went to Darfur and Wadai, others made their way to the Red Sea.
Reaching Gondokoro on the 26th of May following, he formally annexed that station, which he named Ismailia, to the khedival Darfur domains.
The most powerful of the slave traders was Zobeir Pasha, who, having defeated a force sent from Khartum to reduce him to obedience, invaded Darfur (1874).
The khedive, fearing the power of Zobeir, also sent an expedition to Darfur, and that country, after a stout resistance, was conquered.
Was, given the governorship of the whole of the Egyptian territories outside Egypt; namely, the Sudan provinces proper, the Equatorial Provinces, Darfur, and the Red Sea and Somali coasts.
In 1877 Gordon suppressed a revolt in Darfur and received the submission of Suliman Zobeir (a son of Zobeir Pasha), who was at the head of a gang of slave-traders on the Bahr-el-Ghazal frontier.
In 1878 there was further trouble in Darfur and also in Kordofan, and Gordon visited both these provinces, breaking up many companies of slave-hunters.
The next month, December 1883, saw the surrender' of Slatin in Darfur, whilst in February 1884 Osman Digna, his amir in the Red Sea regions, inflicted a crushing defeat on some 4000 Egyptians at El Teb near Suakin.
He enabled some thousands of refugees to make their escape to ' Writing from Darfur in April 1879 Gordon said: " The government of the Egyptians in these far-off countries is nothing else but one of brigandage of the very worst description.
An exception was made in the case of Darfur, which before the battle of Omdurman had thrown off the khalifa's rule and was again under a native sovereign.
In Kordofan, Darfur and the Bahr-el-Ghazal the slave trade continued however for some years later.
In 1820-22 Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan had been conquered by Egypt, and the authority of the Egyptians was subsequently extended southward, eastward to the Red Sea and westward over Darfur (conquered by Zobeir Pasha in 1874).
After some discussion the khedive agreed, and made him governor-general of the Sudan, inclusive of Darfur and the equatorial provinces.
In the meantime an insurrection had broken out in Darfur, and Gordon proceeded to that province to relieve the Egyptian garrisons, which were considerably stronger than the force he had available, the insurgents also being far more numerous than his little army.
He then returned to Khartum, and in 1879 went again into Darfur to pursue the slave traders, while his subordinate, Gessi Pasha, fought them with great success in the Bahr-el-Ghazal district and killed Suleiman, their leader and a son of Zobeir.
A considerable part of the trade of Darfur with Egypt passes through El Obeid.
By Darfur, N.
In the same year Darfur and Harrar were annexed, and in 1877 Gordon became governor-general of the Sudan, where, with the valuable assistance of Gessi Pasha, he labored to destroy the slave trade and to establish just government.
The troubles in Darfur and with Abyssinia (q.v.) induced the khalifa to reduce the garrisons of the north; nevertheless, the dervishes reoccupied Sarras, continued active in raids and skirmishes, and destroyed the railway south of Sarras, which during the Nile expedition of 1884 and 1885 had been carried as far as Ak~1ha.