JOHANN GEORG ADAM FORSTER (1754-1794), German traveller and author, was born at Nassenhuben, a small village near Danzig, on the 2 7th of November 1754.
Peter, a merchant adventurer, who had migrated from Danzig to London about 1670, was also a director of the East India company.
In the same year there appeared in Danzig an anonymous satire, Pope a Metaphysician (Pope ein Metaphysiker), the authorship of which soon transpired.
Joining a Polish artillery regiment in the French service, he took part in the Russian campaign of 1812, and subsequently so brilliantly distinguished himself in the defence of Danzig (January - November 1813) that he won the cross of the Legion of Honour.
After acting as assistant in pharmacies at Quedlinburg, Hanover, Berlin and Danzig successively he came to Berlin on the death of Valentin Rose the elder in 1771 as manager of his business, and in 1780 he started an establishment on his own account in the same city, where from 1782 he was pharmaceutical assessor of the Ober-Collegium Medicum.
Conwentz, Monographie der baltischen Bernsteinbeiume (Danzig, 1890); R.
NIKITA IVANOVICH PANIN, Count (1718-1783), Russian statesman, was born at Danzig on the 18th of September 1718.
See Berendt, Geologie des Kurischen Haffs (Konigsberg, 1869); Sommer, Das Kurische Haff (Danzig, 1889); A.
The towns were large and flourishing; as many as sixty arose in the period between 1233 and 1416, including Thorn and Elbing, Danzig and Konigsberg (named after Ottocar of Bohemia, who took part in the campaign during which it was founded).
The discontented clergy, especially in Livonia; the towns, such as Danzig; the native aristocracy, organized in a league (the Eidechsenbund, or League of the Lizard), all sought to use their opportunity.
The ultimate result was that in 1454 an embassy of the League offered Prussia to the Polish king, and that, after many years of war, the Peace of Thorn (1466) gave to Poland West Prussia, with Marienburg, Thorn, Danzig and other towns, in full possession, and, while leaving East Prussia to the Order, made the Order the vassals of Poland for the territory which it retained.
Immense quantities are imported into Britain from Norway, Sweden and Prussia, under the names of "white Norway," "Christiania" and "Danzig deal."
The well-known "Danzig-spruce" is prepared by adding a decoction of the buds or cones to the wort or saccharine liquor before fermentation.
Danzig became nominally a free city, but was to be occupied by a French garrison until the peace.
The duchy of Warsaw and the fortress of Danzig formed new outworks of his power and enabled him to overawe Russia.
' After Klein's death his Prodromus, written in Latin, had the unwonted fortune of two distinct translations into German, published in the same year 1760, the one at Leipzig and Lubeck by Behn, the other at Danzig by Reyger - each of whom added more or less to the original.
Mentioned, and first among them Rzaczynski, who in 1721 brought out at Sandomirsk the Historia naturalis curiosa regni Poloniae, to which an Auctuarium was posthumously published at Danzig in 1742.
Towards Danzig, which was still in Prussian hands.
Before his advance both Ney and Bernadotte (the latter, between Ney and the Baltic, covering the siege of Danzig) were compelled to fall back.
At the same time Lefebvre was ordered to press the siege of Danzig with all vigour, and on the 5th of May, after a most gallant resistance, Kalckreuth, who redeemed here his failure of Auerstadt, surrendered.
In reply he immediately wrote: " You do not inform me what has rendered necessary such an extraordinary measure which weakens and divides my troops "- and - " I cannot quite grasp the meaning of your letter yet, I should have preferred to see my army concentrated between Ingolstadt and Augsburg, the Bavarians in the first line, with the duke of Danzig in his old position, until we know what the enemy is going to do.
But his assent to this was only extracted from him in 1540 by the importunities of his friends, especially of his enthusiastic disciple George Joachim Rheticus (1514-1576), who printed, in the Narratio prima (Danzig, 1540), a preliminary account of the Copernican theory, and simultaneously sent to the press at Nuremberg his master's complete exposition of it in the treatise entitled De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543).
Of agricultural produce there was barely sufficient for home consumption, but the mining industries had reached a very high level of excellence, and iron, tin and copper were very largely exported from the northern counties to Danzig and other Baltic ports.
President Wilson adhered to his own scheme, but made it clear that he would not oppose any direct agreement, whatever might be its terms: while the Yugosla y s, though accepting the idea of a buffer state, insisted upon their enjoying at Fiume a status analogous to that of Poland at Danzig, and added the impossible condition of a plebiscite after three years.
Lohmeyer, Herzog Albrecht von Preussen (Danzig, 1890).
He studied at Hameln, Luneburg, Hamburg, Lubeck and Danzig, and after graduating Ph.D.
The radio-activity of sea-water is extraordinarily small; indeed in samples taken from 50 fathoms in the Bay of Danzig it was imperceptible, and R.
Mannhardt (Danzig, 1861) with an appendix from the writings of Dirk Philipsz (1504-1570), brother of Obbe, and Menno's henchman.
Of Danzig on the railway to Stargard, and with branches to Stolpmiinde and Neustettin.
Kasiski, Beschreibung der vaterldndischen Alterthiimer in Neu-Stettin (Danzig, 1881).
The Vistula, here of great width, and subject to destructive floods, enters the province near Thorn, and flowing north in a valley which divides the plateau, enters Danzig Bay by a large delta, the Werder.
Shipbuilding is carried on at Danzig and Elbing, and in various places there are iron and glass works, saw-mills, sugar factories and distilleries.
Much of the trade passes through the ports of Danzig and Elbing.
The province is divided into the governmental departments of Danzig and Marienwerder.
Danzig is the capital, and the only large town.
West Prussia, with the exception of southern Pomerania (around Marienwerder) which belonged to Prussia, was a possession of Poland from 1466 till the first partition of Poland in 1772, when it was given to Prussia with the exception of Danzig and Thorn, which Poland retained till 1793.
Lohmeyer, Geschichte von Ostand Westpreussen (part i., 3rd ed., Gotha, 1908); Vallentin, Westpreussen seit den ersten Jahrzehnten dieses Jahrhunderts (Tubingen, 1893); Ambrassat, Westpreussen, ein Handbuch der Heimatkunde (Danzig, 1906).
In return for their acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia.
A few weeks after the victory the towns of Thorn, Elbing, Braunsberg and Danzig submitted to the Polish king; and all the Prussian bishops voluntarily offered to render him homage.
Burg, Elbing, Danzig and Thorn.
And his partisans were besieged by the Russians in Danzig, their last refuge, and with the surrender of that fortress the cause of Stanislaus was lost.
A Socinian Bible was issued by Simon Budny in 1570 at Nieswiez, as he professed to find many faults in the version issued under the patronage of Radziwill; in 1597 appeared the Roman Catholic version of the Jesuit Wujek; and in 1632 the so-called Danzig Bible, which is in use among Protestants and is still the most frequently reprinted.
A History of the Lithuanians in Latin was published by the Jesuit Koialowicz; the first volume appeared at Danzig in 1650.
Robert von Puttkammer, after a short course of law, began his official career in 1850 as Auskultator in the courts at Danzig, but in 1852 entered the civil service, receiving after his promotion to the rank of Assessor in 1854 a post in the railway department of the ministry for trade and industry.
He was compelled by public opinion to support the claims of Louis XV.'s father-inlaw Stanislaus Leszczynski, ex-king of Poland, to the Polish crown on the death of Frederick Augustus I., against the RussoAustrian candidate; but the despatch of a French expedition of 150o men to Danzig only served to humiliate France.
See also Gieswald, Justus Byrg als Mathematiker and dessen Einleitung in seine Logarithmen (Danzig, 1856).
JAKOB SIGISMUND BECK (1761-1840), German philosopher, was born at Danzig in 1761.
(3 vols., Danzig, 1871-1874); P. Scheffer-Boichorst, Kaiser Friedrichs I.
He was expressly commanded by his father to return to Sweden, if the Polish deputation awaiting him at Danzig should insist on the cession of Esthonia to Poland as a condition precedent to the act of homage.
Three days later, by the compact of Linkoping, Sigismund agreed to submit all the points in dispute between himself and his uncle to a riksdag at Stockholm; but immediately afterwards took ship for Danzig, after secretly protesting to the two papal prothonotaries who accompanied him that the Linkoping agreement had been extorted from him, and was therefore invalid.
In 1865 appeared his monograph on Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, which was followed by three volumes on the emperor Frederick Barbarossa (Kaiser Friedrich I., Danzig, 1871-1874).
In 1888 he reverted to a subject which he had touched upon in his Geheimlehre and Geheimstatuten des Tempelherrenordens (Danzig, 1879), and wrote the history of the rise and fall of the Templars (Entwickelung and Untergang des Tempelherrenordens), which is noticed in the article Templars.
Thus Abraham Danzig celebrated in this manner his escape from the results of an explosion of a powder magazine at Wilna in 1804.
(Danzig, 1871-1874); W.
Another important line, connecting Danzig with Odessa, crosses Poland from north-west to south-east.
With the exception of those on the east coast of Schleswig-Holstein, all the important trading ports of Germany are river ports, such as Emden,Bremen, Hamburg, LUbeck, Stettin, Danzig, Konigsberg, Memel.
Long narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of LUbeck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brusterort.
To N.E., its greatest elevation being in the neighborhood of Danzig (Turmberg, 1086 ft.).
Danzig Prussia 159,685
Equally well developed are the Baltic fisheries, the chief ports engaged in which are Danzig, Eckernfrde, Kolherg and Travemnde.
The chief ports are Hamburg, Stettin, Bremen, Kiel, Lbeck, Flensburg, Bremerhaven, Danzig (Neufahrwasser), Geestemunde and Emden; and the number and tonnage of vessels of foreign nationality entering and clearing the ports of the empire, as compared with national shipping, were in 1906:
The management of the Prussian railway system is committed to the charge of twenty directions, into which the whole network of lines is divided, being those of Altona, Berlin, Breslau, Bromberg, Danzig, Elberfeld, Erfurt, Essen ad.
The Baltic ports, such as Lubeck, Stettin, Danzig (Neufahrwasser) and Konigsberg, principally provide communication with the coast towns of the adjacent countries, Russia and Sweden.
He went in a traveling coach with six horses, surrounded by pages, aides-de-camp, and an escort, along the road to Posen, Thorn, Danzig, and Konigsberg.