Grattan's political philosophy was allied to that of Edmund Burke; Tone was a disciple of Danton and Thomas Paine.
It took an active part in the movement against the monarchy of the 10th of June and the 10th of August 1792; but after that date the more moderate leaders of the club, Danton, Fabre d'Eglantine, Camille Desmoulins, seem to have ceased attending, and the "enrages" obtained control, such as J.
The Cordeliers were combated by those revolutionists who wished to end the Terror, especially by Danton, and by Camille Desmoulins in his journal Le Vieux Cordelier.
The club disowned Danton and Desmoulins and attacked Robespierre for his "moderation," but the new insurrection which it attempted failed, and its leaders were guillotined on the 24th of March 1794, from which date nothing is known of the club.
Desmoulins was powerfully swayed by the influence of more vigorous minds; and for some time before the death of Mirabeau, in April 1791, he had begun to be led by Danton, with whom he remained associated during the rest of his life.
Danton left Paris for a little; Desmoulins, however, remained there, appearing occasionally at the Jacobin club.
Desmoulins took an active part on the 10th of August and became secretary to Danton, when the latter became minister of justice.
By the end of March not only were Hebert and the leaders of the extreme party guillotined, but their opponents, Danton, Desmoulins and the best of the moderates, were arrested.
He had to be torn from his seat ere he was removed to prison, and as he sat next to Danton in the tumbrel which conveyed them to the guillotine, the calmness of the great leader failed to impress him.
Of the fifteen guillotined together, including among them Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, Francois Joseph Westermann and Pierre Philippeaux, Desmoulins died third; Danton, the greatest, died last.
He denounced Marat's placards as inciting to murder, summoned Danton to give an account of his ministry, watched carefully over the furnishing of military supplies, and was a strong opponent of Dumouriez, in spite of the general's great popularity.
The news of the failure of the French arms in Belgium gave rise in Paris to popular movements on the 9th and 10th of March 1793, and on the 10th of March, on the proposal of Danton, the Convention decreed that there should be established in Paris an extraordinary criminal tribunal, which received the official name of the Revolutionary Tribunal by a decree of the 29th of October 1793.
Without being formally opposed to Robespierre, he did not support him, and he was the only member of the Committee of Public Safety who did not sign the order for the execution of Danton and his party.
17, 1793) several unsuccessful attempts were made by her friends to rescue her and her children, among others by Jarjayes, Toulan and Lepitre, and the "baron de Batz," and negotiations for her release or exchange were even opened with Danton; but as the allied armies approached her trial and condemnation became a certainty.
In front of it there is a statue of Danton, a native of the town.
He was an intelligent and honest man, although he seems to have profited by the sale of the possessions of the clergy, but he had a stubborn, unyielding temperament, was incapable of making concessions, and was dominated by Madame Roland, who imparted to him her hatred of Danton and the Montagnards.
Marat, like Danton, foresaw the massacres of September.
Moreover, the Septembriseurs- Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites - realized that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping the Revolution alive.
During their struggle with the Girondists, the Montagnards gained the upper hand in the Jacobin Club, and for a time Jacobin and Montagnard were synonymous terms. The Mountain was successively under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, and Robespierre, and the group finally disappeared after Robespierre's death and the successes of the French arms.
In the name of this committee he was charged with the drawing up of reports to the Convention upon the absorbing themes of the overthrow of the party of the Gironde (report of the 8th of July 1793), of the Herbertists, and finally, of that denunciation of Danton which consigned him and his followers to the guillotine.
The threat was not vain: Desmoulins accompanied Danton to the scaffold.
He was implicated by Francois Chabot in the falsification of a decree relative to the East India Company, and though his share seems to have been simply that he did not reveal the plot, of which he knew but part, he was accused before the Revolutionary Tribunal at the same time as Danton and Camille Desmoulins, and was executed on the 5th of April 1794.
When Danton was arrested, Legendre at first defended him, but was soon cowed and withdrew his defence.
His principal works are: The Coming Revolution (1880); The Co-operative Commonwealth in its Outlines, An Exposition of Modern Socialism (1884); Ca Ira, or Danton in the French Revolution (1888), a rehabilitation of Danton; Our Destiny, The Influence of Socialism on Morals and Religion (1890); and The New Economy (1898) .
He escaped, thanks probably to the complicity of Danton, returned to France after the 9th of Thermidor of the year II., left it in exile again after the republican coup d'etat of the 18th of Fructidor of the year V., and died at Appenzell in Switzerland in 1798.
Danton, no doubt, was abler than most of the others, yet the timidity or temerity with which he allowed himself to be vanquished by Robespierre showed that even he was not a man of commanding quality.
Besides a little pamphlet upon Danton, he has written a Histoire politique de la Revolution francaise (1901), and a number of articles which have been collected in volumes under the title Etudes et legons sur la Revolution francaise (5 vols., 1893-1908).
Among the middle class there already existed a party, consisting of men like Danton or Camille Desmoulins, which was prepared to go much further than any of the leaders of the Assembly.
The club of the Cordeliers, led by Danton, demanded not only his deposition but his trial.
The ruling spirit of this new revolution was Danton, a barrister only thirty-two years of age, who had not sat in either Assembly, although he had been the leader of the Cordeliers, an advanced republican club, and had a strong hold on the common people of Paris.
Danton and his friends were assisted in their work by the fear of invasion, for the allied army was at length.
An executive council was formed by recalling Roland, Claviere and Servan to office and joining with them Danton as minister of justice, Lebrun as minister of foreign affairs, and Monge as minister of marine.
Danton can hardly be acquitted of connivance at them.
Even Danton had been forced to resign office when he was elected a member.
Danton strove to unite all partisans of the Revolution in defence of the country; but the Girondins, detesting his character and fearing his ambition, rejected all advances.
Meanwhile the Committee of Public Safety, inspired by Danton, strove to rebuild the French administrative system.
In July the Committee was renewed and Danton fell out; but soon afterwards it was reinforced by two officers, Carnot, who undertook the organization of the army, and Prieur of the Cote d'Or, who undertook its equipment.
While Danton kept power Terrorism remained imperfect, for Danton, although unscrupulous, did not love cruelty and kept in view a return to normal government.
But soon after Danton had ceased to be a member of the Committee of Public Safety Robespierre was elected, and now became the most powerful man in France.
Robespierre was an acrid fanatic, and unlike Danton, who only cared to secure the practical results of the Revolution, he had a moral and religious ideal which he intended to force on the nation.
Danton, when he felt power slipping from his hands, had retired from public business to his native town of Arcis-sur-Aube.
- Before the Revolutionary Tribunal Danton defended himself with such energy that St Just took means to have him silenced.
Danton and his friends were executed on the 5th of April.
The energy of Danton, the organizing skill of Carnot, and the high spirit of the French nation, resolute at all costs to avoid dismemberment, had well employed the respite given by the sluggishness of the Allies.
It included old followers of Danton like Tallien, independent Jacobins like Cambon, some of the worst Terrorists like Fouche, and such a consummate time-server as Barere.
Mirabeau had the stuff of a great statesman, and Danton was capable of statesmanship. But these men were not followed or obeyed save by accident or for a moment.
Mallet's Mallet du Pan and the French Revolution (London, 1902); Robinet's Danton (Paris, 1889); Hamel's Histoire de Robespierre (Paris, 1865-1867) and Histoire de St-Just (2 vols., Brussels, 1860); A.
He was accused of treason, and after being tried before the revolutionary tribunal, was condemned at the same time as Danton, and executed on the 16th Germinal in the year II.
Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.
Danton, a master of diplomatic and military operations, had to avoid any rupture with the Commune.
Without a Gi,ndias leader or popular power, they might have found both in Danton; for, occupied chiefly with the external danger, he made advances towards them, which they repulsed, partly in horror at the proceedings of September, but chiefly because they saw in him the most formidable rival in the path of the government.
On the other hand, after the 23rd of September they declared Paris dangerous for the Convention, and wanted to reduce it to eighty-three influential members Danton and the Mountain responded by decreeing the unity and indivisibility of the Republic, in order to emphasize the suspicions of federalism which weighed upon the Girondins.
To avert the danger threatened by popular dissatisfaction, the Gironde was persuaded to vote for the creation of a revolutionary tribunal to judge suspects, while out of spite against Danton who demanded it, they refused the strong government which might have made a stand against the enemy (March 10, 1793).
The transformation of the provisional executive council into the Committee of Public Safetyomnipotent save in financial matterswas voted because the Girondins meant to control it; but Danton got the upper hand (April 6).
The Girondins, discredited in Paris, multiplied their attacks upon Danton, now the master: they attributed the civil war and the disasters of the foreign campaign to the ?I~ despotism of the Paris Commune and the clubs; they the corn- accused Marat of instigating the September massacres; mane and they began the supreme struggle by demanding the a~d the election of a committee of twelve deputies, charged with ron e.
Despite the efforts of Danton and the Committee of Public Safety, the arrest of the Girondins sealed the victory of the Mountain.
To the departments that were hostile to the dictatorship of Paris, and the tyranny of Danton or Robespierre, it promised the referendum, an executive of twenty-four citizens, universal suffrage, and the free exercise of religion.
An ardent patriot and republican, her relations with Danton resembled those of Marie Antoinette with Mirabeau, in each case a woman spoilt by flattery, enraged at indifference.
Despite this Reign of Terror Danton failed; he could neither dominate foes within nor divide those without.
At the head of the former type Robespierre, without special knowledge or exceptional talent, devoured by jealous ambition and gifted with cold grave eloquence, enjoyed a great moral ascendancy, due to his incorruptible purity of life and the invariably correct behaviour that had been wanting in Mirabeau, and by the persevering will which Danton had lacked.
The second Committee of Public Safety had now to struggle Th ~e against two oppositions: one of the left, represented pek by Hbert, the Commune of Paris and the Cordeliers; another of the right, Danton and his followers.
The followers of Hbert wanted to push forward the movement of May 31, 1793, in order to become masters in their turn; while those of Danton were by way of arresting it.
The expedition to San Domingo reduced the republican army to a nullity; war demoralized or scattered the leaders, who were jealous of their comrade Bonaparte; and Moreau, the last of his rivals, cleverly compromised in a royalist plot, as Danton had formerly been by Robespierre, disappeared into exile.