He was in the House of Lords, however, in 1675, when Danby brought forward his famous Non-resisting Test Bill, and headed the opposition which was carried on for seventeen days, distinguishing himself, says Burnet, more in this session than ever before.
B.) S, ifOMAS Osborne, 1st Duke Of (1631-1712), Inglis Statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl Of Danby, son of Sir Edward Osborne, Bart., of Kiveton, Yorkshire, was born in 1631.
On the 19th of June, on the resignation of Lord Clifford, he was appointed lord treasurer and made Baron Osborne of Kiveton and Viscount Latimer in the peerage of England, while on the 27th of June 1674 he was created earl of Danby, when he surrendered his Scottish peerage of Osborne to his second son Peregrine Osborne.
Danby was a statesman of very different calibre from the 1 Chronicles of London Bridge, by R.
Danby therefore ordered a return from every diocese of the numbers of dissenters, both Romanist and Protestant, in order by a proof of their insignificance to remove the royal scruples.3 In December 1676 he issued a proclamation for the suppression of coffee-houses because of the "defamation of His Majesty's Government" which took place in them, but this was soon withdrawn.
In foreign affairs Danby showed a stronger grasp of essentials.
Though not a number of the Cabal ministry, and in spite of his own denial, Danby must, it would seem, have known of these relations after becoming lord treasurer.
In 1678 Charles, taking advantage of the growing hostility to France in the nation and parliament, raised his price, and Danby by his directions demanded through Ralph Montagu (afterwards duke of Montagu) six million livres a year (30o,000) for three years.
Simultaneously Danby guided through parliament a bill for raising money for a war against France; a league was concluded with Holland, and troops were actually sent there.
That Danby, in spite of these compromising transactions, remained in intention faithful to the national interests, appears clearly from the hostility with which he was still regarded by France.
Letter of Morley, Bishop of Winchester, to Danby (June to, 1676).
Although both abroad and at home his policy had generally embodied the wishes of the ascendant party in the state, Danby had never obtained the confidence of the nation.
Worse men had been less detested, but Danby had none of the amiable virtues which often counteract the odium incurred by serious faults.
Danby in appointing a new secretary of state had preferred Sir W.
He obtained a seat in parliament; and in spite of Danby's endeavour to seize his papers by an order in council, on the 10th of December 1678 caused two of the incriminating letters written by Danby to him to be read aloud to the House of Commons by the Speaker.
Danby, while communicating the "Popish Plot" to the parliament, had from the first expressed his disbelief in the so-called revelations of Titus Oates, and his backwardness in the matter now furnished an additional charge of having "traitorously concealed the plot."
In March 1679 a new parliament hostile to Danby was returned, and he was forced to resign the treasurership; but he received a pardon from the king under the Great Seal, and a warrant for a marquessate.
Danby had removed to the country, but returned on the 21st of April to avoid the threatened passing by the Lords of the attainder, and was sent to the Tower.
This declaration was again repeated by the Commons in 1689 on the occasion of another attack made upon Danby in that year, and was finally embodied in the Act of Settlement in 1701.
Further proceedings, however, were stopped by the dissolution of parliament again in July; but for nearly five years Danby remained a prisoner in the Tower.
A number of pamphlets asserting the complicity of the fallen minister in the Popish Plot, and even accusing him of the murder of, Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, were published in 1679 and 1680; they were answered by Danby's secretary, Edward Christian, in Reflections; and in May 1681 Danby was actually indicted by the Grand Jury of Middlesex for Godfrey's murder on the accusation of Edward FitzHarris.
After James's accession Danby was discharged from his bail by the Lords on the 19th of May 1685, and the order declaring a dissolution of parliament to be no abatement of an impeachment was reversed.
Danby had rendered extremely important services to William's cause.
The original letters, however, of Danby to Montagu have now been published (by the Historical MSS.
Eliot Hodgkin), and are seen to have been considerably garbled by Danby for the purposes of publication, several passages being obliterated and others altered by his own hand.
In 1675 he moved an address to the king for the removal of Danby (see Leeds, Duke Of) from the royal councils, and for his impeachment.
The enmity of the country party against Danby and James, and their desire for a dissolution and the disbanding of the army, were greater than their enmity to Louis.
Danby was at once overthrown, and in April 1679 Russell was one of the new privy council formed by Charles on the advice of Temple.
He was a member of the committee for drafting the articles of impeachment against Danby in 1678, and was appointed one of the managers of the Commons; and in 1679, when the impeachment, interrupted by the dissolution of parliament, was resumed in the new parliament, he spoke strongly against the validity of Danby's plea of pardon by the king.
Charles was anxious for his brother's sake to bring the matter to a conclusion, but he dared not appear to stifle the plot; so, when starting for Newmarket, he left orders with Danby (see Leeds, Duke Of,) that he should finish the investigation at once.
But Danby purposely delayed; an impeachment was hanging over his head, and anything which took men's minds off that was welcome.
Danby (afterwards duke of Leeds) now became chief minister; but, though in reality a strong supporter of the national policy, he could not hope to keep his place without acquiescence in the king's schemes.
On the other hand, Danby succeeded in effecting the marriage (4th of November 1677) between William of Orange and the princess Mary, which proved the most important political event in the whole reign.
Louis made peace with Holland at Nijmwegen on the 10th of August, and punished Danby by disclosing his secret negotiations, thus causing the minister's fall and impeachment.
To save Danby Charles now prorogued the parliament on the 30th of December, dissolving it on the 24th of January 1679.
In May 1679 he prorogued the new parliament which had attainted Danby, and in July dissolved it, while in October he prorogued another parliament of the same mind till January and finally till October 1680, having resolved " to wait till this violence should wear off."
Danby and those confined on account of participation in the popish plot were liberated, and Titus Oates thrown into prison.