Louis accompanied the Crusaders to Damietta in 1221, and governed Germany as regent from 1225 until 1228, when he deserted Frederick II.
At the siege and capture of Damietta (1218) it was the contingent of NorthNetherlanders (Hollanders and Frisians under Count William I.
This time he was successful; he made his way to Egypt, where the crusaders were besieging Damietta, got himself taken prisoner and was led before the sultan, to whom he openly preached the Gospel.
In 1218 he went on crusade to the Holy Land and took part in the capture of Damietta; then returning to England he died at Wallingford in October 1232.
In the first place, Cyprus was a natural and excellent basis of operations; it sent provisions to the crusaders in 1191, and again at the siege of Damietta in 1219, while its advantages as a strategic basis were proved by the exploits of Peter of Cyprus in the 14th century.
But before St Louis sailed for Damietta there intervened the miserable failure of one Crusade, and the secular and diplomatic success of another.
In 121 5 as the goal of attack, and it was accordingly resolved to begin the Crusade by the siege of Damietta, on the eastern delta of the Nile.
The capture of Damietta was a considerable feat of arms, but nothing was done to clinch the advantage which had been won, and the whole of the year 1220 was spent by the crusaders in Damietta, partly in consolidating their immediate position, and partly in waiting for the arrival of Frederick II., who had promised to appear in 1221.
In 1221 Hermann of Salza, the master of the Teutonic order, along with the duke of Bavaria, appeared in the camp before Damietta; and as it seemed useless to wait any longer for Frederick II., 4 the cardinal, in spite of the opposition of King John, gave the signal for the march on Cairo.
The crusaders were driven back towards Damietta; and at the end of August 1221 Pelagius had to make a treaty with Malik-al-Kamil, by which he gained a free retreat and the surrender of the Holy Cross at the price of the restoration of Damietta.
The letter of the pope informing Pelagius of this delay is dated the 10th of June: it would probably reach his hands after his departure from Damietta; and thus the Cardinal gave the signal for the march, when, as he thought, the emperor's coming was imminent.
Damietta was taken without a blow, and the march for Cairo was begun, as it had been begun by the legate Pelagius in 1221.
St Louis was captured, and a treaty was made by which he had to consent to evacuate Damietta and pay a ransom of 800,000 pieces of gold.
Eventually St Louis was released on surrendering Damietta and paying one-half of his ransom, and by the middle of May 1250 he reached Acre, having abandoned the Egyptian expedition.
When the other branches and the Alexandria canal silted up, Rosetta prospered like its sister port of Damietta on the eastern branch; the main trade of the overland route to India passed through it until Mehemet Ali cut a new canal joining Alexandria to the Nile.
The battle was drawn, but it led to the retreat of the crusaders on Damietta, and to the surrender of St Louis.
Released on the conclusion of peace he joined the Damietta crusade of 1219, but returned at an early date to make his peace with the regency.
He entered the Teutonic Order in early life, became very intimate with Frederick II., took part in the expedition to Damietta in 1221, and accompanied the emperor on the crusade of 1228, which was joined by many princes owing to his influence.
It was built to consist of two bridges one over the eastern or Damietta branch of the river having 71 arches, the other, over the Rosetta branch, having 61 arches, each arch being of 5 metres or 16.4 ft.
- Map showing the Damietta and Rosetta dams on the Nile.
Numerous regulating bridges and locks have been built to give absolute control of the water and facilities for navigation; and since 1901 a second weir has been constructed opposite Zilta, across the Damietta branch of the Nile, to improve the irrigation of the Dakhilia province.
This area is watered by the Damietta and the Rosetta branches of the Nile, and by a network of canals.
East of the Damietta mouth of the Nile this strip is in place not more than 200 yds.
It extends from very near the Damietta branch of the Nile to PortSaid.
Between Ale~xandria and Port Said are the towns of Rosetta (q.v.), pop. 16,810, and Damietta (q.v.), pop. 29,354, each built a few miles above the mouth of the branch of the Nile of the same name.
Damanhur (38,752) lies on the railway between Tanta and Alexandria; Mansura (40,279) is on, the Damietta branch of the Nile, to the N.E.
Of Tanta; Zagazig (34,999) is the largest town in the Delta east of the Damietta branch; Bilbeis (f3,485) lies N.N.E.
Of and terminus of a railway from Zagazig, on the edge of the desert south of Lake Menzala, and the starting-point of the caravans to Syria; Mataria (15,142) on Lake Menzala and headquarters of the fishing industry; Zifta (13,850) on the Damietta branch and the site of a barrage; Samant~4 (14,408), also on the Damietta branch, noted for its pottery, and Fua (14,515), where large quantities of tarbushes are made, on the Rosetta branch.
Following the right (eastern) bank of the Damietta branch is the Rayya Tewfiki, known below Benha as the Mansuria, and below Mansura as the Fareskur, canal.
After a siege of sixteen and a half months Damietta was taken by the Franks on Tuesday the 6th of November 1219; al-Kamil thereupon proclaimed the Jihad, and was joined at his fortified camp, afterwards the site of Man~ra, by troops from various parts of Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia, including the forces of his brothers Isa and Miis.
(the Seventh Crusade), and in spite of illness he hastened to Ushmum Tanna, in the neighborhood of Damietta, which he provisioned for a siege.
Damietta was taken on the 6th of June 1249, owing to the desertion of his post by the commander Fakhr ud-dIn, and the BanU Kingnah, to whom the defence of the place had been entrusted: fifty-four of their chieftains were afterwards executed by the sultan for this proceeding.
The Egyptian authorities now resolved to raze Damietta, which, however, was rebuilt shortly after.
A double expedition shortly after Bonapartes departure was sent by the Porte for the recovery of Egypt, one force being despatched by sea to Damietta, while another under Yflsuf Pasha took tle land route from Damascus by al-Arish.
On the following day Mahommed Khosrev made good his escape, with his women and servants and his regular troops, and fled to Damietta by the river.
In consequence of the alliance between Mehemet All and a]-BardIsI, the Albanians gave the citadel over to the Mamelukes; and soon after, these allies marched against Khosrev Pasha, who.having been joined by a considerable body of Turks, and being in possession of Damietta, was enabled to offer an obstinate resistance.
The victorious soldiery sacked the town of Damietta, and were guilty of the barbarities usual with them on such occasions.
The Egyptian troops at Kafr Dauar, Abukir and Rosetta surrendered without opposition, and those at Damietta followed on the 23rd of September, after being threatened with attack.
`Anbasa the governor had ordered the garrison of Damietta to parade at the capital Fostat.
The legate Pelagius, however, claimed the command; and insisting on the advance from Damietta, in spite of the warnings of King John, he refused to accept the favourable terms of the sultan, as the king advised, until it was too late.
The second part enters upon the history of the crusade itself, and tells how Joinville pledged all his land save so much as would bring in a thousand livres a year, and started with a brave retinue of nine knights (two of whom besides himself wore bannerets), and shared a ship with the sire d'Aspremont, leaving Joinville without raising his eyes,"pour ce que le cuer ne me attendrisist du biau chastel que je lessoie et de mes deux enfans"; how they could not get out of sight of a high mountainous island (Lampedusa or Pantellaria) till they had made a procession round the masts in honour of the Virgin; how they reached first Cyprus and then Egypt; how they took Damietta, and then entangled themselves in the Delta.