PIETRO DAMIANI (c. 1007-1072), one of the most celebrated ecclesiastics of the IIth century, was born at Ravenna, and after a youth spent in hardship and privation, gained some renown as a teacher.
Damiani was a determined foe of simony, but his fiercest wrath was directed against the married clergy.
Vogel, Peter Damiani (Jena, 1856); A.
Pier Damiani e del suo tempo (Florence, 1862); F.
Neukirch, Das Leben des Peter Damiani (Gottingen, 1875); L.
Damiani advocated the substitution of flagellation for the recitation of the penitential psalms, and drew up a scale according to which 1000 strokes were equivalent to ten psalms, and 15,000 to the whole psalter.
Assuming that the Expositio canonis missae ascribed to St Pietro Damiani (d.
Its beginning may be traced as early as the iith century (Pietro Damiani, q.v.), and in the 12th century the most influential exponent of this new piety was Bernard (q.v.) of Clairvaux, who taught men to find God by leading them to Christ.
The legend connected with its foundation is given by Peter Damiani in his Life of St Odilo.
The pilgrim age with a predetermined goal was not recognized by the books of penance; but, in 1059, Peter Damiani imposed a pilgrimage to Rome or Tours on the clerics of Milan, whom he had absolved (Ada mediol.
In 10J9, Archbishop Wido of Milan journeyed to St James (Damiani, Acta mediol.
St Pietro Damiani (988-1072) was a scholar, hermit and reformer, who did more perhaps than any one else to combat the open marriages of the clergy.
6 Damiani found a powerful ally in the equally ascetic but far more imperious and statesmanlike Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII.
Cosmae and Damiani; later he became cardinal priest of St Mark's.