Dalton (1803) gave the atomic theory a quantitative form, and showed that, by means of it, a vast number of the facts of chemistry could be predicted or explained.
On the 10th of June 1875 he died in Dalton, Georgia, a city which in 1848 he had helped to found.
Dalton lived in a period marked by great advances in experimental chemistry.
Dalton, who was a mathematical physicist even more than a chemist, had given much thought to the study of gases.
The Aristotelian would find no difficulty in such a variability; it is only the disciple of Dalton to whom it seems impossible.
The discovery of this law is due to Dalton; it is a direct deduction from his atomic theory.
As Dalton said, "The doctrine of definite proportions appears mysterious unless we adopt the atomic hypothesis."
Dalton himself made many analyses with the purpose of establishing his views, but his skill as an analyst was not very great.
On account of this difficulty, the atomic weights published by Dalton, and the more accurate ones of Berzelius, were not always identical with the values now accepted, but were often simple multiples or submultiples of these.
The "symbols" for the elements used by Dalton, apparently suggested by those of the alchemists, have been rejected in favour of those which were introduced by Berzelius.
Dalton believed that the molecules of the elementary gases consisted each of one atom; his diagram for hydrogen gas makes the point clear.
Their hypothesis explains so many facts.
To this period also belong the labours of Richard Pococke and Richard Dalton, Richard Chandler, E.
The laws of chemical combination were solved, in a measure, by John Dalton, and the solution expressed as Dalton's " atomic theory."
This controversy was unfinished when Dalton published the first part of his New System of Chemical Philosophy in 1808, although the per saltum theory was the most popular.
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.
The formulation of the atomic theory by John Dalton gave a fresh impetus to the development of quantitative analysis; and the determination of combining or equivalent weights by Berzelius led to the perfecting of the methods of gravimetric analysis.
After the Confederate retreat from Dalton in May 1864, General William T.
At first this work was merely a compilation, but in the later editions many of his original results were incorporated; the third edition (1807) is noteworthy as containing the first detailed account of the atomic theory, communicated to him by John Dalton himself.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
At Pittsfield and at Dalton is centred the manufacture of fine writing papers, including that of paper used by the national government for bonds and paper money.
Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.
There he made the acquaintance of John Dalton, and began those inquiries into the strength of materials which formed the work of his life.
He also made the first rough experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon first pointed out by John Dalton, the physical importance of which was more fully brought to light by Thomas Graham and Joseph Loschmidt.
Solutions were not distinguished from definite chemical compounds till John Dalton discovered the laws of definite and multiple proportions, but many earlier observations on the solubility of solids in water and the density of the resulting solutions had been made.
411, &c.; Dalton and Chaplin, P.E.F.
After the destruction of Furness Abbey, Ulverston succeeded Dalton as the most important town in Furness, but the rapid rise of Barrow surpassed it in modern times.
DALTON, JOHN (1766-1844), English chemist and physicist, was born about the 6th of September 1766 at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland.
His father, Joseph Dalton, was a weaver in poor circumstances, who, with his wife (Deborah Greenup), belonged to the Society of Friends; they had three children - Jonathan, John and Mary.
During his residence in Kendal, Dalton had contributed solutions of problems and questions on various subjects to the Gentlemen's and Ladies' Diaries, and in 1787 he began to keep a meteorological diary in which during the succeeding fifty-seven VII.
The usage of the term "Lake District," however, tends to limit the name of Furness in common thought to the district south of the Lakes, where several of the place-names are suffixed with that of the district, as Barrow-inFurness, Dalton-in-Furness, Broughton-in-Furness.
The hematite is also worked at Ulverston, Askam, Dalton and elsewhere, but the furnaces now depend in part upon ore imported from Spain.
Dalton, Antiquities from Benin.
Although the earliest attempts at gas analysis were made by Scheele, Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, Dalton, Gay-Lussac and others, the methods were first systematized by R.
Dalton, The Ethnology of Bengal (1872); Sir W.
Prior to the opening (in August woo) of the railway between Skagway and White Horse, Canada (110 m.), by way of the White Pass, all transportation to the interior was effected by men and pack-animals (and for a time by a system of telpherage) over these passes and the Chilkat or Dalton trail; the building of the railway reduced carriage rates to less than a tenth of their former value, and the Chilkat and Chilkoot Passes were no longer used.
Its specific gravity varies from 6.7 to 6.86; it melts at 432° C. (Dalton), and boils between 1090 -1600 C. (T.
Wigan, otherwise Wygan and Wigham, is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but three of the townships, Upholland, Dalton and Orrel are named.
The formula of Dalton would make the pressure increase in geometrical progression for equal increments of temperature.
DALTON-IN-FURNESS, a market town in the North Lonsdale parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, 4 m.