It is clear, however, from the descriptions of these vestments that in some cases they were actually tunicles, the confusion of terms arising from the similarity of shape (see Dalmatic); in other cases the colour applied to the parures, not to the albs as a whole.
Iii.) in the British Museum, often ascribed to the 10th or early 11th century, he judges from the form of the pallium and dalmatic to have been produced at the end of the 11th century " at earliest."
Cope and surplice; (3) vestments used at both - alb, amice, girdle, stole, dalmatic, tunicle.
The tunica dalmatica was a long, sleeved upper tunic, originating, as its name implies, in Dalmatia, and first becoming fashionable at Rome in the 2nd century; it is the origin of the liturgical dalmatic and tunicle (see Dalmatic).
At Rome, especially, where the popes had succeeded to a share of the power and pretensions of the Caesars of the West, the accumulation of ecclesiastical vestments symbolized a very special dignity: in the second quarter of the 9th century the pope, when fully vested, wore a camisia girdled, an alb (linea) girdled, an amice (anagolaium), a tunicle (dalmatica minor), a dalmatic (dalmatica major), stole (orarium), chasuble (planeta) and pallium.
The popes had, from time to time, sent the pallium or the dalmatic - specifically Roman vestments - as gifts of honour to various distinguished prelates; Britain, converted by a Roman mission, had adopted the Roman use, and English missionaries had carried this into the newly Christianized parts of Germany; but the great Churches of Spain and Gaul preserved their own traditions in vestments as in other matters.
' Apart from the archiepiscopal pallium, the Churches of Spain and Gaul had need to borrow from Rome only the dalmatic, maniple and liturgical shoes.
Up to the 9th century these had been very plain, without ornament save such traditional decorations as the clavi of the dalmatic; what splendour they had was due to their material and the ample folds of their draperies.
Taking the other orders downwards: deacons wear amice, alb, girdle, stole, maniple' and dalmatic; subdeacons, amice, alb, girdle, maniple and tunicle; the vestment proper to the minor orders, formerly the alb, is now the surplice or cotta.
Finally, the pope, when celebrating mass, wears the same vestments as an ordinary bishop, with the addition of the subcinctorium (see ALB), a dalmatic, worn over the tunicle and under the chasuble, and the orale or fanone (see Amice).
An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).
Dalmatic, tunicle, surplice - are sometimes blessed when used in connexion with the sacrifice of the mass, but there is no definite rule on the subject.
The revived use of the stole is the most curious problem involved; for this, originally due to a confusion of this vestment with the ' There is no mention of mitre, gloves, dalmatic, tunicle, sandals and caligae, which were presumably discontinued.
In southern Italy, probably under Greek influence, and in Milan (where the custom still survives) the diaconal stole was put on over the dalmatic. Similarly in Spain and Gaul, anterior to the Carolingian age, the stole was worn by deacons over the alba or outer tunic.
The Greeks and Greek Melchite metropolitans now wear the sakkos instead of the phelonion; and in the Russian, Ruthenian, Bulgarian and Italo-Greek churches this vestment has superseded the phelonion in the case of all bishops (see Dalmatic and Vestments).
Dalmatic and tunicle are now, however, practically identical in shape and size; though, strictly, the latter should be somewhat smaller and with narrower arms. In most countries, e.g.
England, France, Spain and Germany, dalmatic and tunicle are now no longer tunics, but scapular-like cloaks, with an opening for the head to pass through and square lappets falling from the shoulder over the upper part of the arm; in Italy, on the other hand, though open up the side, they still have regular sleeves and are essentially tunics.
The most characteristic ornament of the dalmatic and tunicle is the vertical stripes running from the shoulder to the lower hem, these being connected by a cross-band, the position of which differs in various countries (see figs.
Duchesne, 1.171) the dalmatic was first introduced as a vestment in public worship by Pope Silvester I.
However this may be, the dalmatic remained for centuries the vestment distinctive of the pope and his deacons, and - according at least to the view held at Rome - could be worn by other clergy only by special concession of the pope.
How far, however, this rule was strictly observed, and what was the relation of the Roman dalmatic to the diaconal alba and subdiaconal tunica, which were in liturgical use in Gaul and Spain so early as the 6th century, are moot points (see Braun, p. 252).
The dalmatic was in general use at the beginning of the 9th century, partly as a result of the Carolingian reforms, which established the Roman model in western Europe; but it continued to be granted by the popes to distinguished ecclesiastics not otherwise entitled to wear it, e.g.
(965-972) was the first to bestow the right to wear the dalmatic on an abbot, and Pope Benedict VII.
According to the actual use of the Roman Catholic Church dalmatic and tunicle are worn by deacon and subdeacon when assisting at High Mass, and at solemn processions and benedictions.
Dalmatic and tunicle are never worn by priests, as priests, but both are worn by bishops under the chasuble (never under the cope) and also by those prelates, not being bishops, to whom the pope has conceded the right to wear the episcopal vestments.
In England at the Reformation the dalmatic ultimately shared the fate of the chasuble and other mass vestments.
In the Eastern churches the only vestment that has any true analogy with the dalmatic or liturgical upper tunic is the sakkos, the tunic worn by deacons and subdeacons over their everyday clothes being the equivalent of the Western alb.
The sakkos, which, as a liturgical vestment, first appears in the 12th century as peculiar to patriarchs, is now a scapular-like robe very similar to the modern dalmatic (see fig.
Its origin is almost certainly the richly embroidered dalmatic that formed part of the consular insignia, which under the name of sakkos became a robe of state special to the emperors.
- Deacon in dalmatic, apparelled amice and alb.
- Back Of A Dalmatic Of Tamped Green Woollen Velvet: The Orphreys And Apparels Are Of Embroidered Silk Velvet.
- Dalmatic Of White Sa i i L:Al B.Uidered \ IT1 t Coloured Silks And Sill i _R-Gilt And Silver Thread.
A silk dalmatic forms one (the undermost) of the English coronation robes.
Thu magnificent so-called dalmatic of Charlemagne, preserved at Rome (see Embroidery), is really a Greek sakkos.
Such were the sleeveless surplice, which was provided at the sides with holes to put the arms through; the surplice with slit-up arms or lappels (so-called "wings") instead of sleeves; the surplice of which not only the sleeves but the body of the garment itself were slit up the sides, precisely like the modern dalmatic; and, finally, a sort of surplice in the form of a bell-shaped mantle, with a hole for the head, which necessitated the arms being stuck out under the hem.
Vitale at Ravenna; in this case, however, the dalmatic has been confused with the surplice.
This apparel, when the vestment has been adjusted, forms a sort of stiff collar which appears above the chasuble or dalmatic (see fig.
The first record of its ecclesiastical use is at Rome in the 8th century, when it was worn only with-the dalmatic and was known as the anabolagium (anagolaium, anagolagium, from Gr.
It is put on after the alb, &c., and under the tunicle, dalmatic and chasuble, but then drawn up so as to fall over the latter like a collar.
Over this costume the pope wears, on less solemn occasions, the lace rochet and the red mozetta, bordered with ermine, or the camauro, similar to the mozetta, but with the addition of a hood, and over all the stole embroidered with his arms. The pope's liturgical costume consists, in the first place, of all the elements comprising that of the bishops: stockings and sandals, amice, alb, cincture, tunicle and dalmatic, stole, ring, gloves, chasuble or cope, the latter, however, with a morse ornamented with precious stones, and for head-dress the mitre (see Vestments).