Dalman (2nd ed.
Dalman, Die Worte Jesu, p. 2 f.; Grammatik des jud.- palcist.
9 But, as Dalman has pointed out,' 0 it was not these manuscripts, but the living tradition of the learned which was recognized as authoritative throughout the period which closes with the compilation of the Talmud..
According to Dalman, 13 its language differs in many material particulars from the Aramaic dialects of the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds, and is more closely allied to the biblical Aramaic. On the linguistic side, therefore, we may regard Onkelos " as a faithful representative of a Targum which had its rise in Judaea, the old seat of Palestinian literary activity."
It is not, however, to be regarded as a reproduction in written form of a Palestinian translation, but rather as an official translation of the Law, in the Judaean dialect, which was carried out in Babylon, probably about the 4th century A.D.: in its final form, according to Dalman (l.c.) it cannot be earlier than the 5th century.
Dalman in his Worte Jesu.
Dalman, Die Worte Jesu (Leipzig, 1898), (Eng.
Geschichte (1895), pp. 198-204; Charles's Book of Enoch and Apocalypse of Baruch (especially the introductions); Bousset, Religion des Judentums, 2nd ed., pp. 245-277; Volz, Judische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, pp. 55-68, 213-237: Dalman, Der leidende u.
For later Hebrew: Levy, Neuhebraisches Worterbuch (Leipzig, 1876-1889); Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumi, &c. (NewYork, 1886, &c.); Dalman, Aramaisches neuhebrdisches Worterbuch (Frankfort a.
Professor Delitzsch estimated that i oo,000 Jews had embraced Christianity in the first three quarters of the i 9th century; and Dr Dalman of Leipzig says that " if all those who have entered the Church and their descendants had remained together, instead of losing themselves among the other peoples, there would now be a believing Israel to be counted by millions, and no one would have ventured to speak of the uselessness of preaching the Gospel to the Jews."
But Ewald, Schmidt-Merx, Colani, Carriere, Hausrath, Dalman, Rosenthal and Burkitt decide in favour of a Semitic. R.
All former descriptions are now superseded by the magnificent work of Brunnow and Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia (1904), who have minutely surveyed the whole site, classified the tombs, and compiled the accounts of earlier investigations; and by the independent researches of Dalman, Petra and seine Felsheiligtiimer (1908), and of Musil, Arabia Petraea (1907-1908).
Dalman (Frankfort-on-Main, 1901).