Both these rivers come from the south-west: the Argun, or Kerulen as it is called above Lake Kulun (Dalai-nor), through which it flows about half way between its source and Ust-Stryelka, rises in 49° N.
BAIKAL (known to the Mongols as Dalai-nor, and to the Turkish tribes as Bai-kul), a lake of East Siberia, the sixth in size of all the lakes of the world and the largest fresh-water basin of Eurasia.
Corner of Transbaikalia in the vicinity of Dalai-nor, thus having on the N.
The boundary line which separates Mongolia from Manchuria runs past Dalai-nor and Lake Buir, crossing the Great Khingan in 47° 30' N., towards Tsit g ihar in Manchuria; then, crossing the Nonni river, it strikes the Sungari at Khulanchen, where it turns westwards up this river, reaching the Shara-muren river in 123° 30' E.
From the transverse breach of the Keriya-darya (about 811° E.) to that of the Kara-muren in the longitude of Cherchen (about 852° E.) the parallel border-ranges of the Tibetan plateau trend to the E.N.E., and here occur in the lower or outer range the passes of Dalai-kurghan-art (14,290 ft.), Choka-davan, i.e.
An equally popular book is the Love Songs of Ts'angs-dbyangs rgyamts'o, attributed to the dissipated young Dalai lama who was deposed in 1701 (see Lhasa).
Though the whole of Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, the government of the country is divided into two distinct administrations, the one under the rule of the Dalai lama of Lhasa, the other under local kings or chiefs, and comprising a number of ecclesiastical fiefs.
The central government of this part of the country is at Lhasa; the nominal head is the Dalai lama or grand lama.
The Tashi lama or head of the monastery of Tashilhunpo near Shigatse is inferior to the Dalai lama in secular authority, of which, indeed, he has little - much less than formerly - but he is considered by some of his worshippers actually superior to him in religious rank.
The person next in consideration to the two great lamas is the regent, who is an ecclesiastic appointed during the minority of each Dalai lama.
Some fifty volumes, the relics of the mission library, were in 1847 recovered from Lhasa by Brian Hodgson, through the courtesy of the Dalai lama himself, and were transmitted as an offering to Pope Pius IX.
He actually did reach Lhasa, stayed there about five months, and had several interviews with the Dalai lama, but was compelled to return to India.
He travelled by way of Tashilhunpo, lay dangerously ill for some time at Samding monastery, duly reached Lhasa, where he visited the Dalai Lama, but owing to small-pox in the city could remain there only a fortnight, though he made full use of this time.
This lama was Sodnam rGyamtso, the third successor of Gedundub, the founder of the Tashilhunpo monastery in 1447, who had been elected to the more important abbotship of Galdan near Lhasa, and was thus the first of the great, afterwards Dalai, lamas.
To Sodnam rGyamtso the Mongol khans gave the title of Vajra Dalai Lama in 1576, and this is the first use of the widely known title of Dalai Lama.
During the minority of the fifth (really the third) Dalai Lama, when the Mongol king Tengir To, under the pretext of supporting the religion, intervened in the affairs of the country, the Pan-ch'en Lo-sang Ch'o-kyi Gyal-ts'ang lama obtained the withdrawal of the invaders by the payment of a heavy war indemnity, and then applied for help to the first Manchu emperor of China, who had just ascended the throne.
This step enraged the Mongols, and caused the advance of Gushri Khan, son and successor of Tengir To, who invaded Tibet, dethroned all the petty princes, including the king of Tsang, and, after having subjugated the whole of the country, made the fifth Dalai lama supreme monarch of all Tibet, in 1645.
The Chinese government in 1653 confirmed the Dalai Lama in his authority, and he paid a visit to the emperor at Peking.
The Mongol Khoshotes in 1706 and the Sungars in 1717 interfered again in the succession of the Dalai lama, but the Chinese army finally conquered the country in 1720, and the present system of government was established.
He obtained a commanding influence over the Dalai Lama, impressed upon him the dangers which threatened Tibet from England, and suggested the desirability of securing Russian protection and even the possibility of converting the tsar and his empire to Buddhism.
The Dalai Lama assented, and was even prepared to visit St Petersburg, but was checked by the Tsong-du (assembly).
The Dalai Lama, inspired by Dorjiev, now took steps to bring on a crisis by provoking England.
The Dalai Lama had fled with Dorjiev.
The Dalai Lama was now summoned to Peking, where he obtained the imperial authority to resume his administration in place of the provisional governors appointed as a result of the British mission.
When the Dalai Lama attempted to give orders that they should cease, the Chinese amban in Lhasa disputed his authority, and summoned the Chinese troops to enter the city.
They did so, and the Dalai Lama fled to India in February 1910, staying at Darjeeling.
To the Dalai Lama, who had attempted to obtain British intervention at Peking, it was made clear that he personally had no claim to this, as the British government could only recognize the de facto government in Tibet.
These two leaders were then known as the Dalai Lama and the Pantshen Lama, and were the abbots of the great monasteries at Gedun Dubpa, near Lhasa, and at Tashi Lunpo, in Farther Tibet, respectively.
In the same way the Pantshen Lama is looked upon as an incarnation, the Nirmana-kaya, of Amitabha, who had previously appeared under the outward form of Tshonkapa himself; and the Dalai Lama is looked upon as an incarnation of Avalokitesvara.
But practically the Dalai Lama, owing to his position in the capital,' has the political supremacy, and is actually called the Gyalpo Rinpotshe, " the glorious king " - his companion being content with the title Pantshen Rinpotshe, " the glorious teacher."
Their number varies from ten to a hundred; and it is uncertain whether the honour is inherent in the abbacy of certain of the greatest cloisters, or whether the Dalai Lama exercises the right of choosing them.
The political authority of the Dalai Lama is confined to Tibet itself, but he is the acknowledged head also of the Buddhist church throughout Mongolia and China.