Mazaca, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called Eusebea (perhaps after Ariarathes Eusebes), and named Caesarea probably by Claudius, stood on a low spur on the north side of Erjies Dagh (M.
Rashki), a river which rises south of Erzerum, in the Bingeul-dagh, and flows east through the province of Erzerum, across the Pasin plateau, and then through Russian Armenia, passing between Mount Ararat and Erivan, and forming the Russo-Persian frontier.
In the summits of the Kushlar Dagh, Karluk Dagh and KaraBalkan.
Towards the Black Sea, the less elevated Istranja Dagh stretches from north-west to south-east; and the entire south coast, which includes the promontory of Gallipoli and the western shore of the Dardanelles, is everywhere hilly or mountainous, except near the estuaries of the Maritza, and of the Mesta, a western frontier stream.
It rises in the Dumlu Dagh, N.N.W.
Nalzr Arsanas), rises south-west of Diadin, in the northern flank of the Ala Dagh (11,50o ft.), and flows west to the Alashgerd plain.
It then runs west, south and east round the rock-mass of Musher Dagh, and receives (right) the Kuru Chai, down which the Sivas-Malatia road runs, and the Tokhma Su, from Gorun (Gauraina) and Darende.
A little below Deir the river is joined by the Khabur (Khaboras, Biblical Khabor), the frontier of the Roman empire from Diocletian's time, which rises in the Karaja Dagh, and, with its tributary, the Jaghijagh (Mygdonius; Arab.
The Caucasus, the Elburz, the Kopet-dagh and Paropamisus, the intricate and imperfectly known network of mountains W.
The two great masses of Cadmus (Baba-dagh) and Salbacum (Boz-dagh), which are in fact portions of the great chain of Taurus (see Asia Minor), form the nucleus to which the whole physical framework of the country is attached.
South-eastwards to the Kara-dagh and Salavat mountains in north Persia, and the latter link them on to the Elburz mountains that skirt the southern end of the Caspian Sea.
These two sets of parallel ranges are linked together transversely by the cross-ridges of Bezobdal, Pambak, Shah-dagh and Gok-cha.
Akmangan, Mokry, Karabakh and Egri-dagh (see below).
The principal water-divide in this highland region is, however, the range of Egri-dagh (Ararat), which j ust south of 40° S.
The boundary between Russian and Turkish Armenia, having Ararat at its eastern extremity and the extinct volcano of Kessa-dagh (11,260 ft.) at its western.
The Egri-dagh possesses a sharply defined crest, ranges at a general elevation of 8000 ft., is bare of timber, scantily supplied with water, and rugged and deeply fissured.
The Boz-dagh and another ridge run between the four Koisu rivers, the head-streams of the Sulak, which flows into the Caspian.
Syrian orography, therefore, is simple, being composed of nothing but these two parallel systems. That on the west, which rises behind the Mediterranean littoral, springs from Taurus in the well-afforested Mt Ama nus (Giaour Dagh), and is continued by Jebel Bereket and J.
The eastern system springs from the Tauric offshoot (Kurd Dagh, &c.), which shuts off the Commagenian basins, and as the triple chain of J.
Its kings bore the name of Antiochus, and were as proud of their Macedonian, as of their Persian, descent (see the Inscription of Nimrud Dagh, Michel, No.
The lands of Karaja Dagh, near Angora, were assigned to the new settlers, who found there good pasturage and winter quarters.
The most distinguishing features of the country were the chain of Rhodope (Despoto-dagh) and the river Hebrus (Maritza).
To N.E., has a length of about 290 m., and ends some distance beyond Bujnurd in northern Khorasan, where it joins the Ala Dagh range, which has a direction to the S.E., and, continuing with various appellations to northern Afghanistan, unites with the Paropamisus.
Beyond Khush Yailak (meaning "pleasant summer quarters"), with an elevation of 10,000 ft., are the Kuh i Buhar (8000) and Kuh i Suluk (8000), which latter joins the Ala Dagh (1r,000).
CILICIA, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, extending along the south coast from the Alara Su, which separated it from Pamphylia, to the Giaour Dagh (Mt.
Kara-Dagh; hill-sanctuary with incised carving of seated figure and inscriptions, found by Miss G.
Arslan Tash, near Comana (Cappadocia), on the Soghan Dagh; two colossal lions, one with incised inscription.
This was situated in the extreme north-east of the district immediately on the frontier of Phrygia, between Lake Egerdir and the range of the Sultan Dagh and was reckoned in the Greek and earlier Roman period, e.g.
Foot of the Kopet-dagh range.
ALA-SHEHR (anc. Philadelphia), a town of Asia Minor, in the Aidin vitayet, situated in the valley of the Kuzu Chai (Cogamus), at the foot of the Boz Dagh (Mt.
It was situated on the lower southern slopes of the Sultan Dagh, in the Konia vilayet of Asia Minor, on the right bank of a stream, the ancient Anthius, which flows into the Hoiran Geul.
East of this the range now called Ala-Dagh extends for above loom.
Sakaria), which traverses the province from south to north; the Rhyndacus, which separated it from Mysia; and the Billaeus (Filiyas), which rises in the Ala-Dagh, about 50 m.
It is beautifully situated at the foot of Baba Dagh (Mt.
It includes the Kuba plain on the north-east slope of the Caucasus; the eastern extremity of that range from the Shad-dagh (13,960 ft.) and the Bazardyuz (14,727 ft.) to the Caspian, where it terminates in the Apsheron peninsula; the steppes of the lower Kura and Aras on the south of the Caucasus, and a narrow coast-belt between the Anti-Caucasus and the Caspian.
Slopes of the Chatyr-dagh Mountains, and is divided into two parts - the European, well built in stone, and the Tatar, with narrow and filthy streets peopled by some 7000 Tatars and by Jews.
(I) The Taurus footh i ll barrier that shuts off the east to west course of the Euphrates and Tigris culminates centrally in the rugged volcanic Karaja-Dagh (6070 ft.) which blocks the gap between the two rivers, continued eastwards by the mountainous district of Tur-`Abdin (the modern capital Midyat is at a height of 3500 ft.) and westwards by the elevated tract that sends down southwards the promontory of J.
North in the `Ain Khalil ar-Rahman, but receives also the waters of the united Nahr al-Kut (in its upper course formerly the Daisan, /lcipros) from Edessa and Kopru Dagh, and the Jullab from Tektek Dagh about as much farther north.
By way of Weranshahr from Karaja Dagh in the north.
The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.
The sides of Karaja-Dagh, J.
10 (2) Probably the modern route from Samosata eastwards behind the Karaja Dagh to Diarbekr was also well known.
RODOSTO (Turkish, Tekir Dagh), a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Adrianople, on the coast of the Sea of Marmora, 78 m.
Long and about 12 wide, bordered by steep, rounded mountains and traversed by the Kara Su, or western Euphrates, which has its source in the Dumlu Dagh a few miles north of that town, which lies at an elevation of 6250 ft.
It is separated from (3), the southern and deepest section of the Caspian, by a submarine ridge (30 to 150 fathoms of water), which links the main range of the Caucasus on the west with the Kopet-dagh in the Transcaspian region on the east.
The other mountain-systems display great complexity of formation; beginning with the Dinaric Alps and the parallel ranges of Bosnia, they run, as a rule, from north-west to south-east; the great chain of Rhodope traverses the centre of the Peninsula, throwing out spurs towards the Black Sea and the Aegean; farther west are the lofty Shar Dagh and the mountains of Montenegro and Albania, continued by the Pindus range and the heights of Acarnania and Aetolia.
The principal summits are Olympus overlooking the Gulf of Salonica; Musalla (9631) and Popova Shapka (8855), both in the Rhodope system; Liubotrn in the Shar Dagh (8989); Elin, in the Perin Planina (8794); Belmeken in southern Bulgaria (chain of Dospat, 8562); Smolika in the Pindus range (8445); Dormitor in northern Montenegro (8294); Kaimakchalan in central Macedonia (8255); and Kiona in Aetolia (8235).
Mt Dindymus (Murad Dagh) marked the frontier of Mysia, and the entire valley of the Tembrogius or Tembris (Porsuk Su) was certainly included in Phrygia.
(I) Parorius, the long, level, elevated valley stretching north-west to south-east between the Sultan Dagh and the Emir Dagh from Holmi (about Tchai) to Tyriaeum (Ilghin); its waters collect within the valley, in three lakes, which probably supply the great fountains in the Axylon and through them the Sangarius.
Egri Dagh, i.e.