Un homme d'etat russe (1884) gave the history of the emancipation of the serfs by Alexander II.
Proscribed at the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (4th of September 1797) he escaped to Basel.
Stolypin did his best to work in harmony with it, realizing that under the existing law another dissolution could but lead to a like result, and shrinking from the only alternative - an alteration of the law by a coup d'etat, a course which could only be justified on the plea of extreme necessity.
Dubrovin, president of the Union of the Russian People and organizer of pogroms, having written a letter of congratulation to the tsar on the occasion of the coup d'etat, received a gracious reply; the hideous reign of terror of the " Black Hundred " in Odessa did not prevent the Grand-duke Constantine from accepting the badge of membership of the Union.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
A commission for publishing the whole of the letters and memoirs was appointed by Guizot in 1834, and the result has been the issue of nine volumes of the Papiers d'Etat du cardinal de Granvelle, edited by C. Weiss (Paris, 1841-1852).
After the coup d'etat of the 16th of May, he was one of the leaders of the "363."
He left Paris after the coup d'etat of 1851 and spent nine years in England.
It was not, however, till after the coup d'etat of the 2nd of December 1851, which made Louis Napoleon supreme in France, that he became conspicuous as a diplomat.
His participation in the coup d'etat of the 8th of July 1762 attracted the attention of the new empress, Catherine II., who made him a Kammerjunker and gave him a small estate.
He once remarked that the house of Bonaparte dated from the coup d'etat of Brumaire (November 1 799); but it is certain the de Buonapartes had received the title of nobility from the senate of the republic of Genoa which, during the 18th century, claimed to exercise sovereignty over Corsica.
He was suddenly placed under arrest owing to intrigues or suspicions of the men raised to power by the coup d'etat of Thermidor 9-10 (July 27-28) 1794.
Concurrently with these undertakings, he steadily prepared to strengthen his position in the political life of France; and it will be well to notice the steps by which he ensured the defeat of the royalists in France and the propping up of the directorial system in the coup d'etat of Fructidor 1797.
In the sphere of European diplomacy, no less than in that of French politics, the results of the coup d'etat of Fructidor were momentous.
The coup d'etat was favourable to Bonaparte; it ensured his hold over the Directors and enabled him to impose his own terms of peace on Austria; above all it left him free for the prosecution of his designs in a field of action which now held the first place in his thoughts - the Orient.
The Directory, after the coup d'etat of Fructidor, had acknowledged a state of bankruptcy by writing off twothirds of the national debt in a form which soon proved to be a thin disguise for repudiation.
True, the Directory seemed on the point of collapse; it had been overcome by the popularly elected Chambers in the insignificant coup d'etat of 30 Prairial (18th of June) 1799; when Larevelliere-Lepeaux and Merlin were compelled to resign.
The coup d'etat seemed to have failed.
Clearly the succoss of the coup d'etat of Brumaire was due in the last resort to Lucien Bonaparte.
For the present the connivance of the senate at his coup d'etat of Nivose led to the deportation of one hundred and thirty Jacobins; some were interned in the islands of the Bay of Biscay, while fifty were sent to the tropical colonies of France, whence few of them ever returned.
Victories in the field were not more effective in consolidating Napoleon's power than were his own coups d'etat and the supremely skilful use which he made of conspiracies directed against him.
Aucoc, Le Conseil d'etat avant et depuis 1789 (Paris, 1876); E.
At the close of 1794 he also used his tact and eloquence on behalf of the restoration of the surviving Girondins to the Convention, from which they had been driven by the coup d'etat of the 3 1st of May 1793.
Nevertheless, not being a regicide, he was not appointed to be one of the five Directors to whom the control of public affairs was entrusted after the coup d'etat of Vendemiaire 1795; but, as before, his powers of judgment and of tactful debating soon carried him to the front in the council of Five Hundred.
The moderation of his views brought him into opposition to the Directors after the coup d'etat of Fructidor (September 1797), and for a time he retired into private life.
He gave a guarded support to Bonaparte and Sieyes in their enterprise of overthrowing the Directory (coup d'etat of Brumaire 1799).
After the coup d'etat of 1851 he retired from public life.
At the end of his term he became a judge of the peace, but after the parliamentary coup d'etat of the 3 oth of Prairial of the year VIII.
Ducos accepted the coup d'etat of Bonaparte on the 18th of Brumaire, and was one of the three provisional consuls.
Amongst other works may be mentioned Histoire de la raison d'etat, La China et l'Europa, Corso d'istoria degli scrittori politici italiani.
In 1762 she was at St Petersburg and took a leading part, according to her own account the leading part, in the coup d'etat by which Catherine was raised to the throne.
The suspicion, not without justification, of a second attempt at a coup d'etat led on the 6th of October to the "capture" of the king and royal family at Versailles by a mob from Paris, and their transference to the Tuileries.
As a matter of fact, beyond lending the tsesarevna 2000 ducats, instead of the 15,000 she demanded of him, he took no part whatever in the actual coup d'etat which was as great a surprise to him as to every one else.
Although, when Beam was annexed to the domains of the crown, it was granted a conseil d'etat and a parlement, which sat at Pau, the province also retained its fors until the Revolution.
For a time Maret betook himself to journalism; but he played a useful part in the negotiations for a peace with Great Britain which went on at Lille during the summer of 1797, until the victory of the Jacobins at Paris in the coup d'etat of Fructidor (Sept.
On the return of Bonaparte from Egypt in 1799 Maret joined the general's party which came to power with the coup d'etat of Brumaire (Nov.
They argued that it would be much more difficult to carry out a success ful coup d'etat when the good-natured, confiding emperor had been succeeded by his more suspicious and energetic daughter.
After the coup d'etat of 1851 he settled with his family in Jersey, where he pursued agricultural experiments and wrote his socialist poem La Greve de Samarez.
Of Marie de Medici and Louis XIII.), sometimes attributed to Mezeray, published at Amsterdam in 1730 and, under the title Histoire de la regence de reine Marie de Medicis, femme de Henry IV., at the Hague in 1743 Memoires sur la regne de Louis XIII., extending from 1610 to 1638, and of which the earlier portion is a reprint of the Histoire de la mere et du fils, published in Petitot's collection (Paris, 1823 seq.); Testament politique d'Armand du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu (Amsterdam, 1687 seq.); Journal de 1630-31 (Paris, 1645); "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," published by G.
(Paris, 18 53-77); and "Maximes d'etat et fragments politiques," published by G.
The most important sources for Richelieu's statesmanship are the "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," mentioned above, and Richelieu's Memoires (1610-38) may be consulted in Petitot's and J.
He voted with the Orleanists the "Constitutional Laws" of 1875, and approved of MacMahon's parliamentary coup d'etat on the 16th of May 1877.
He retired from public life after the coup d'etat of Napoleon III., and died on the 15th of March 1865.
Rinaldo's proposal for a coup d'etat met with no response from his own party, and he failed to prevent the election of a pro-Medici signory in 1434.
From the coup d'etat of 1851 to May 1869 he devoted himself to journalism.
After a short mission in the western provinces he returned to Paris, and took an active part in the coups d'etat of the 31st of May and the 2nd of June, which resulted in the overthrow of the Girondists.
In the preface to it he took occasion to express his approval of Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat of the 2nd of December, - " a fortunate crisis which has set aside the parliamentary system and instituted a dictatorial republic."
His father had attempted a coup d'etat, which had failed, with the result that on his death the office of stadtholder was abolished.
Could hardly do otherwise than ignore Errington's nomination, as he also ignored the nomination of Clifford, bishop of Clifton, and of Grant, bishop of Southwark; and, by what he humorously described as "the Lord's own coup d'etat," he appointed Manning to, the archiepiscopal see.
A member of the upper house throughout the reign of Louis Philippe, he was driven into private life by the establishment of the Second Republic, but lived to see the Coup d'etat and to rally to the government of Louis Napoleon, dying in Paris on the 5th of February 1852.