East of the Cascade Mountains the Columbia and Spokane rivers mark the boundary between the Okanogan Highlands to the northward and the Columbia plateau to the southward; The Okanogan Highlands, an outlier of the Rocky Mountains extending westward from the Coeur d'Alene Mountains in Idaho, reach heights of 5000 to 6000 ft.
The Spokane, Portland & Seattle railway connects the three cities named by way of the Columbia Valley; and the Spokane & Inland Empire sends a line eastward into Idaho to the Coeur d'Alene country and another through the south-eastern part of the state into Nevada.
Boundary - the Bitter Root, the Cceur d'Alene and the Cabinet ranges being parts of the Rocky Mountain System.
Are: Coeur d'Alene Lake, in Kootenai county, about 30 m.
The richest deposits of silver are those of Wood river and of the Coeur d'Alene district in Shoshone county (opened up in 1886); the county's product in 1906 was valued at $5,322,706, an increase of $917,743 over the preceding year; in 1907 it was $4,780,093, according to state reports.
High grade copper ores have been produced in the Seven Devils and Washington districts of Washington county; there are deposits, little developed up to 1906, in Lemhi county (which was almost inaccessible by railway) and in Bannock county; the copper mined in 1905 was valued at $1,134,846, and in 1907, according to state reports, at $2,241,177, of which about two-thirds was the output of the Cceur d'Alene district in Shoshone county.
Zinc occurs in the Ceeur d'Alene district, at Hailey, Blaine county and elsewhere; according to the state reports, the state's output in 1906 was valued at $91,426 and in 1907 at $534,087.
Brick-making was of little more than local importance in 1906, the largest kilns being at Boise, Sand Point and Coeur d'Alene City.
Idaho, being occupied by the Shoshone, Bannock and Sheef-eater tribes, and the Cceur d'Alene reservation (632 sq.
M.), in the N.W., by the Coeur d'Alene and Spokane tribes.
Of these tribes, the Nez Perce and Ceeur d'Alene were self-supporting; the other tribes were in 1900 dependent upon the United States government for 30% of their rations.
There are Catholic academies at Boise and Coeur d'Alene and a convent, Our Lady of Lourdes, at Wallace, Shoshone county, opened in 1905; Mormon schools at Paris (Bear Lake county), Preston (Oneida county), Rexburg (Fremont county), and Oakley (Cassia county); a Methodist Episcopal school (1906) at Weiser (Washington county); and a Protestant Episcopal school at Boise (1892).
But the permanent settlements date from the revelation of Idaho's mineral resources in 1860, when the Coeur d'Alene, Palouses and Nez Perces were in the North, and the Blackfoots, Bannocks and Shoshones in the South.
Occasional labour troubles have been very severe in the Coeur d'Alene region, where the attempt in 1892 of the Mine Owners' Association to discriminate in wages between miners and surfacemen brought on a union strike.