Towards Russia the policy of Czechoslovakia was logically consistent.
There was general agreement on foreign policy, whose pivots were close alliance with Czechoslovakia, the series of bilateral agreements which made up the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia Aug.
14 1920: Czechoslovakia and Rumania April 23 1921: Yugoslavia and Rumania June 7 1921), and the anti-Habsburg agreement concluded with Italy simultaneously with the Treaty of Rapallo (Nov.
- The republic of Czechoslovakia is a new creation in respect of its name and state-form only.
Of German towns in Czechoslovakia (most of them with a considerable Czechoslovak minority), Liberec (Reichenberg), and Jablonec (Gablonz), are important industrial centres.
Czechoslovakia indeed is one of the richest states of Europe in mineral and health-giving waters, and possesses more than 200 watering places and health resorts.
Some of the political leaders escaped over the frontier - among them Prof. Thomas Garrigue Masaryk and Dr. Eduard Benes, who were subsequently to lead a success :3,500,000 English Miles 1, 0 ao Kilometres Czechoslovakia Frontier 1921 poilow stria-Hungary 191C411.
The Czechs at home declined even discussion with the Vienna Government, and declared that the question of Czechoslovakia must be left to the Peace Conference.
The National Central Council of the Ruthenians, which met on May 8 1919 at Uzhorod, their capital, unanimously adopted a resolution approving of incorporation with Czechoslovakia, on special terms of autonomy.
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Rumania became bound together in the Little Entente by a treaty of alliance (Convention with Yugoslavia dated Aug.
In respect of Austria Czechoslovakia was animated by the desire to assist in relieving the economic situation of the country, while opposed both to the incorporation of Austria with Germany and to the foundation of a Danubian confederation.
In respect of Hungary Czechoslovakia was at one with Yugoslavia and Rumania in holding that a Habsburg restoration would be a casus belli.
It was in this sense that the whole policy of Czechoslovakia towards Poland was directed, and the Czechoslovaks were hopeful that Poland would ultimately join with the Little Entente.
It had always been opposed to intervention in Russia, and insisted upon Russia desisting from any act that might be construed as intermeddling in the affairs of Czechoslovakia, in particular the pursuit of Bolshevist propaganda on Czechoslovak territory.
In pursuance of its practical policy of rapprochement and economic cooperation in the reconstruction of central Europe in particular and of Europe in general, Czechoslovakia concluded a series of commercial treaties with her various neighbours and with the Allied Powers.
The economic and financial position of Czechoslovakia showed signs in 1921 of steady recovery from the chaos which succeeded the close of the war.
In special branches of industry Czechoslovakia is prominent among European countries, as for instance in the production of sugar and glass.
In its output of graphite Czechoslovakia takes second place among European countries, Great Britain being the first.
Naphtha wells are working with favourable results at Gbely in Slovakia, and researches in progress at other points (Russinia) promise results that would make Czechoslovakia independent of foreign sources in respect of petroleum, even if no surplus were produced for export.
The economic importance of Czechoslovakia is strikingly shown by a comparison with the rest of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
Czechoslovakia is the only European State which can export sugar: it is the second largest beet-sugar producer in the world, having I some 500,000 ac. of beet under cultivation.
With an area of over to million ac. of forest it is only natural that Czechoslovakia exports not merely large quantities of timber but also furniture, bent-wood furniture, toys, musical instruments, etc. Of the bent-wood furniture 90% is exported and finds a ready market in England and America.
Czechoslovakia, as already indicated, is not only an industrial State: it possesses at the same time a highly developed agriculture in which over 40% of the entire population is engaged, that is to say, some 5,700,000 persons are workers in some way or other connected with the land.
The foreign trade of Czechoslovakia was in 1921 growing steadily in volume.
Previous to the war the country's products were, of course, classed as Austrian goods: now the description of " Made in Czechoslovakia " was beginning to make its way in the markets of the world.
Czechoslovakia was thus the only country in central Europe with a well-balanced budget.
As a wholly inland nation, Czechoslovakia has to rely in the matter of transport upon its railways and its waterways, notably the Elbe, which connects the republic with Hamburg and the North Sea, and the Danube, which unites it with the east of Europe and the Balkans.
"CZECHOSLOVAKIA (Ciskoslovensko, Ciskoslovensk4 Republika).
The population of Czechoslovakia is ethnologically of a mixed character.
Czechoslovakia manufactures and exports agricultural machinery, plant for sugar refineries and distilleries, locomotives, railway carriages and trucks and other rolling-stock, motor-cars, tractors.
Under the peace treaties Czechoslovakia acquired her own docks and warehouses in the harbour of Hamburg.
The total length of railway track in Czechoslovakia was in 1921 a little over 8,000 m., which represents 1 m.
Czechoslovakia has 5,000 post-offices, some io,000 m.
The youngest literary generation in Czechoslovakia was represented in 1921 in particular by three leading poets: So y a, a writer of delicate lyrics; Bezruc, who sings of social and national oppression, and Bi'ezina, a profound visionary and pantheistic mystic. Among prose writers the leading contemporary names are Svobodova, apek, a robust realist, and Sramek, who has also met with success as a dramatist.
Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.