KUTTENBERG (Czech, Kutnd Hora), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 45 m.
REICHENBERG (Czech, Liberec), a town of Bohemia, 87 m.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
PARDUBITZ (Czech, Pardubic), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 65 m.
In 1879 and 1880 as Rector Magnificus he fought against the introduction of Czech instead of German in the Prague University.
The Hussite movement, a victorious expression of Czech nationality, is contemporaneous with the loss of German dominion in Prussia; the exodus of German students from Prague takes place a year before the defeat of the Order at Tannenburg.
GABLONZ (Czech, Jablonec), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 94 m.
He refused to take part in the preliminary parliament consisting of Soo former deputies to the diet, which met at Frankfort, on the ground that as a Czech he had no interest in German affairs.
The Czech mercenaries under Giszkra held the northern counties and from thence plundered those in the centre.
On the 3rd of May the Czech Catholics elected Matthias king of Bohemia, but this was contrary to the wishes of both pope and emperor, who preferred to partition Bohemia.
But Boleslaus's first Bohemian war proved unsuccessful, and was terminated by the marriage of his sister Swatawa with the Czech king Wratyslaus II.
BILIN (Czech Bilina), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 90 m.
MORAVIA (Ger., Mahren; Czech, Morava), a margraviate and crownland of Austria, bounded E.
The name of Czech, however, is usually reserved for the Bohemians, while the Sla y s of Moravia and West Hungary are called Moravians and Slovacs.
BRAUNAU (Czech Broumov), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 139 m.
SCHLAN (Czech, Slane), a town of Bohemia, 37 m.
KRUMAU (in Czech, Krumlov), is a town in Bohemia situated on the banks of the Moldau (Vitava).
It has about 8000 inhabitants, partly of Czech, partly of German nationality.
TRAUTENAU (Czech Trutnov), a town of Bohemia, 120 m.
According to the language in common use, 95% of the population was German, 4.66% was Czech, and the remainder was composed of Poles, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians.
FRANTISEK PALACKY [FRANCIS]] (1798-1876), Czech historian and politician, was born on the 14th of June 17 9 8 at Hodslavice (Hotzendorf) in Moravia.
The journal was at first published in Czech and German, and the Czech edition survived to become the most important literary organ of Bohemia.
This book, which comes down to the year 1526 and the extinction of Czech independence,'was founded on laborious research in the local archives of Bohemia and in the libraries of the chief cities of Europe, and remains the standard authority.
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom which should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics.
Among his more important smaller historical works are: Wilydigung der alten bOhmischen Geschichtschreiber (Prague, 1830), dealing with authors of many of whose works were then inaccessible to Czech students; Archiv cesky (6 vols., Prague, 1840-1872); Urkundliche Beitr¢ge zur Geschichte des Hussitenkriegs (2 vols., Prague, 1872-1874); Documenta magistri Johannis Hus vitam, doctrinam, causam.
Three volumes of his Czech articles and essays were published as Radhost (3 vols., Prague, 1871-1873).
The nucleus of the new army he found in the Czech mercenaries, seasoned veterans who readily transferred their services to the best payer.
The cavalry consisted of the famous Hussars, or light horse, of which he may be said to have been the creator, and the heavily armed mounted musketeers on the Czech-German model.
(Pozsony, 1847), John Czech, Gustavus Wenczel, Frederick Pesty and Paul Szlemenics as writers on legal history; Joseph Bajza, who in 1845 commenced a History of the World; Alexander Szilagyi, some of whose works, like those of Ladislaus KOvary, bear on the past of Transylvania, others on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849; Charles L, nyi and John Pauer, authors of treatises on Roman Catholic ecclesiastical history; John Szombathi, Emeric Revesz and Balogh, writers on Protestant church history; William Fraknoi, biographer of Cardinal Pazman, and historian of the Hungarian diets; and Anthony Gevay, Aaron Sziladi, Joseph Podhradczky, Charles Szabo, John Jerney and Francis Salamon, who have investigated and elucidated many special historical subjects.
This gave rise to sympathetic demonstrations in many Dalmatian and Bosnian towns, and to a series of interpellations and speeches by the Yugoslav and Czech deputies in the Parliament of Vienna.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
Of the Sudetic Mountains they were brought under a Czech national state, which inherited, with them, the problem of nationality.
The party which had frustrated the efforts of the Old Czechs for a reconciliation with the Germans) produced this magnificent work in collaboration with 22 professors, artists, industrial leaders and writers of Czech nationality, supported by a national subsidy; it can therefore be accepted as a trustworthy Czech autobiography.
" The control which is exercised over the land is in Czech hands since we possess a majority; the territorial authorities for the greater part belong to our nation " (p. 242).
Besides mentioning the encouragement bestowed by leading Germans like Goethe, Herder, Raumer, etc., on Czech poets and scholars, the book gives an appreciative account of the Emperor Joseph.
It should be difficult, after the copious details of this autobiography de luxe of the Czech nation in the year 1916, to speak of it historically as an " oppressed " nation of Austria.
Since the last election in the spring of 1908 the Bohemian Diet had been unworkable, eventually owing to obstruction on the part of the Germans, who saw themselves handed over hopelessly to the Czech majority, until a rearrangement of the voting groups (curiae) should afford them protection against Czech oppression.
The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.
But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized.
Minister of Czech and of German nationality.
The Germans thereupon paralyzed the Prague Diet by means of obstruction, upon which the Czech members of the Beck Cabinet left it, and the prime minister, seeing himself abandoned by both Germans and Czechs, resigned on Nov.
They insisted that the Government should introduce proposals as to the official language of functionaries, for they feared a return of the procedure used by Badeni, which by means of a Government ordinance had altered the received usage and upset the national balance of power; that in Bohemia the purely German sub-districts (Bezirke) should be included in German districts (Kreise), and in like manner the purely Czech sub-districts in Czech districts, so that there would then be a relatively small number of territories of mixed nationality, which would have to be governed bilingually; that minorities should be protected by law; and that in appointing to posts in the offices of the autonomous Bohemian territorial Government, proportionate consideration should be given to the Germans, attention being paid to the fact that in Bohemia more than a third of the population were German, and that they paid more than half the taxes, but that the Czech national majority had appointed more than 90% of Czechs and not even 10% of Germans in the Government offices.