They may occur on all parts, buds, leaves, stems or roots, as shown by the numerous species of Cynips on oak, Phylloxera on vines, &c. The local damage is small, - but the general injury to assimilation, absorption and other functions, may be important if the numbers increase.
Genera: Cynips, Tenthredo, Sirex, Ichneumon, Sphex, Chrysis, Vespa, Apis, Formica, Mutilla.
The small, smooth, seed-shaped gall of the American Cynips seminator, Harris, according to W.
The " knoppern " galls of Cynips polycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge.
Among the Hymenoptera are the gall-wasps (Cynips and its allies), which infect the various species of oak.
The transformations from the larval state are completed within the gall, out of which the imago, or perfect insect, tunnels its way, - usually in autumn, though sometimes, as has been observed of some individuals of Cynips Kollari, after hibernation.
The " marble " or " Devonshire woody galls " of oak-buds, which often destroy the leading shoots of young trees, are produced by Cynips Kollari," already alluded to.
The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah galls, 14 produced on a species of oak by Cynips insana, Westw., have been regarded by many writers as the Dead Sea fruit, mad-apples (mala insana), or apples of Sodom (poma sodomitica), alluded to by Josephus and others, which, however, are stated by E.
What in California are known as " flea seeds " are oak-galls made by a species of Cynips; in August they become detached from the leaves that bear them, and are caused to jump by the spasmodic movements of the grub within the thin-walled gall-cavity."
Lusitanica, Webb, by Cynips (Diplolepis, Latr.) tinctoria, L., or C. gallae tinctoriae Oliv.
Thus the galls of Cynips and its allies are inhabited by members of other cynipideous genera, as Synergus, Amblynotus and Synophrus; and the pine-cone-like gall of Salix strobiloides, as Walsh has shown, 2 is made by a large species of Cecidomyia, which inhabits the heart of the mass, the numerous smaller cecidomyidous larvae in its outer part being mere inquilines.
Callimome regius, the larva of which preys on the larvae of both Cynips glutinosa and its lodger Synergus facialis.