The majority of authors, however, follow Brauer in dividing the order into two sections, Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha, according to the manner in which the pupa-case splits to admit of the escape of the perfect insect.
In the Cyclorrhapha on the other hand, in which the actual pupa is concealed within the hardened larval skin, the imago escapes through a circular orifice formed by pushing off or through the head end of the puparium.
Within the divisions named - Orthorrhapha Nematocera, Orthorrhapha Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha - the constituent families are usually grouped into a series of "superfamilies," distinguished by features of structure or habit.
In reality, however, the families designated Eproboscidea (Hippoboscidae, Braulidae, Nycteribiidae and .Streblidae), are not entitled to be considered as constituting either a suborder, or even a main division of the Cyclorrhapha; they are simply Cyclorrhapha much modified owing to parasitism, and in view of the closely similiar mode of reproduction in the tsetseflies the special designation Pupipara should be abandoned.
Cyclorrhapha: Larva vermiform (no head-capsule).
Diptera of the sub-order Orthorrhapha occur in the Lias and Cyclorrhapha in the Kimmeridgian.
The eruciform larva of the Orthorrhapha leads on to the headless vermiform maggot of the Cyclorrhapha, and in the latter sub-order we find metamorphosis carried to its extreme point, the muscid flies being the most highly specialized of all the Hexapoda as regards structure, while their maggots are the most degraded of all insect larvae.