Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
He published separately: - Istoria Universale (Roma, 1697), only one volume of which appeared; De Calendario et Cyclo Caesaris (1703); Hesperi et Phosphori nova Phaenomena (1729), in which he asserted Venus to rotate in 243 days; and (posthumously) Astronomicae et Geographicae Observationes Selectae (1737) and Opuscula Varia (1754).
POLYMETHYLENES, in chemistry, cyclic compounds, the simplest members of which are saturated hydrocarbons of general formula C 7, H 2nj where n may be r to 9, and known as tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-methylene, &c., or cyclo- propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane, -heptane, &c.: - CH 21 CH 2 CH 2 CH2.CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2?C1H,, I I H ?
Cyclo-propane, -butane, -pentane, -hexane.
Is methyl-cyclo-hexadiene - i.
C02R CH 3 CH: CBr CO 2 R+NaCH (CO 2 R) 2 --->CH 3 C. I C(C02R)2 by the action of diazomethane or diazoacetic ester on the esters of unsaturated acids, the pyrazoline carboxylic esters so formed losing nitrogen when heated and yielding acids of the cyclo- propane series (E.
Cyclo-propane Group. Trimethylene, Calls, obtained by A.
Cyclo-propane carboxylic acid, C 3 H 5 CO 2 H, is prepared by heating the 1.1- dicarboxylic acid; and by the hydrolysis of its nitrile, formed by heating y-chlorbutyro-nitrile with potash (L.
The cis 1.2-cyclo-propane dicarboxylic acid is formed by eliminating carbon dioxide from cyclo-propane tricarboxylic acid -1.2.3 (from 43-dibrompropionic ester and sodio-malonic ester).
Cyclo-butane Group. Cyclo-butane, C 4 H 8, was obtained by R.
Cyclo-butene, C4H6, formed by distilling trimethyl-cyclo-butylammonium hydroxide, boils at 1.5-2.0° C. (see N.
It melts at 154-156° C., losing carbon dioxide and passing into cyclo-butane carboxylic acid, C 4 H 7 CO 2 H.
Attempts to eliminate water from this acid and so produce an unsaturated acid were unsuccessful; on warming with sulphuric acid, carbon monoxide is eliminated and cyclo-butanone (keto-tetramethylene) is probably formed.
The truxillic acids, C,8H1504, which result by the hydrolytic splitting of truxilline, C38H46N208, are phenyl derivatives of cyclo-butane.
The a-acid is diphenyl-2.4-cyclo-butane dicarboxylic acid -1.3; and the /3-acid diphenyl-3.4-cyclo-butane dicarboxylic acid -1.2.
Riiber (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 2411; 1904, 37, P. 22 74), by oxidizing diphenyl-2.4-cyclo-butane-bismethylene malonic acid (fron cinnamic aldehyde and malonic acid in the presence of quinoline) with potassium permanganate.
Cyclo-pentane Group. Derivatives may be prepared in many cases by the breaking down of the benzene ring when it contains an accumulation of negative atoms (T.
Cyclo-pentane, C5H10, is obtained from cyclo-pentanone by reducing it to the corresponding secondary alcohol, converting this into the iodo-compound, which is finally reduced to the hydrocarbon (J.
It is a colourless liquid which boils at 50-51° C. Methyl-cyclo-pentane, C 5 H 9 CH 3, first obtained by F.
Cyclo-pentene, C 5 H 8, a liquid obtained by the action of alcoholic potash on iodo-cyclo-pentane, boils at 45° C. Cyclopentadiene, C. 1 H 6, is found in the first runnings from crude benzene distillations.
It is a liquid which boils at 41° C. It rapidly polymerizes to di-cyclo-pentadiene.
Phenylfulven, j " > C :CHPh, HC: CHI obtained from benzaldehyde and cyclo-pentadiene, forms dark red plates.
Diphenylfulven, from benzophenone and cyclo-pentadiene, crystallizes in deep red prisms. Dimethylfulven is an orangecoloured oil which oxidizes rapidly on exposure.
Cyclo-pentanone, C 5 H 8 0, first prepared pure by the distillation of calcium adipate (J.
Reduction gives cyclo-pentanol, C5H90H.
Croconic acid (dioxy - cyclo-pentene-trione), C 5 H 2 0 51 is formed when triquinoyl is boiled with water, or by the oxidation of hexa-oxybenzene or dioxydiquinoyl in alkaline solution (T.
On oxidation it yields cyclo-pentane-pentanone (leuconic acid).
Derivatives of the cyclo-pentane group are met with in the breaking-down products of the terpenes.
3-cyclo-pentanol-3-carboxylic acidI) see W.
Isolauronolic acid, C 9 H 14 0 2, is trimethyl-2.2.3-cyclo-pentene-3-acid-4.
Campholic acid, C 1 oH 18 0 2, is tetramethyl-188.8.131.52-cyclo-pentane acid-3.
Camphorphorone, C 9 H 14 0, is methyl-21sobuty-lene-5-cyclo-pentanone-I.
Blanc (Comptes rendus, 1903, 136, p. 1460), prepared hydrocarbons of the cyclo-pentane series from cyclo- hexane compounds by the exhaustive methylation process of A.
For phenyl derivatives of the cyclo- pentane group see F.
Stobbe, Ann., 1901, 314, p. III; 315, p. 219 seq.; 1903, 326, p. 347 Cyclo-hexane Group. Hydrocarbons.
- Cyclo-hexane, or hexahydro benzene, C 6 H 121 is obtained by the action of sodium on a boiling alcoholic solution of I.
Hexahydrocymene (methyl-i-isopropyl-4-cyclo-hexane), C10H20, is important since it is the parent substance of many terpenes (q.v.).
Cyclo-hexene (tetrahydrobenzene), C 6 H 10, was obtained by A.
It is a liquid which boils at 82° C. Hypochlorous acid converts it into 2-chlor-cyclo-hexanol-I, whilst potassium permanganate oxidizes it to cyclo-hexandi-ol.
Cyclo-hexadiene (dihydrobenzene), C 6 H 8.
- Two isomers are possible, namely cyclo-hexadiene-i.
3 and cyclo-hexadiene-i 4.
4 dibrom-cyclo-hexane with quinoline.
3-diamino and I.4-diamino-cyclo-hexane.
Cyclo-hexanol, CcHiiOH, is produced by the reduction of the corresponding ketone, or of the iodhydrin of quinite.
Nitric acid oxidizes it to adipic acid, and chromic acid to cyclo-hexanone.
Quinite (cyclo-hexanediol-i 4) is prepared by reducing the corresponding ketone with sodium amalgam, cis-, and trans-modifications being obtained which may be separated by their acetyl derivatives.