The endosperm detached from a large Ginkgo ovule after fertilization bears a close resemblance to that of a cycad; the apex is occupied by a depression, on the floor of which two small holes mark the position of the archegonia, and the outgrowth from the megaspore apex projects from the centre as a short peg.
Most of the specimens had formed a zone of secondary wood and phloem resembling the corresponding tissues in a recent Cycad; the similarity extended to minute histological details, as is shown especially in H.
In some respects the most remarkable family of the Cycad-fern alliance is that of the Medulloseae,seed-bearing plants often of great size, with a fern-like foliage, and a singularly corn- (After Arber.
This is a large seed, with a very long micropyle; it has a beaked pollen-chamber, and a complex integument made up of hard and fleshy layers, closely resembling the seed of a modern Cycad; the nucellus, however, was free from the integument, each a sketch after Kidston.
In those stems which have been referred with certainty to the Cordaiteae there is no centripetal wood; the spiral elements are adjacent to the pith, as in a recent Conifer or Cycad; certain stems, however, are known which connect this type of structure with that of the Lyginodendreae; this, for example, is the case in the Permian genus Poroxylon, investigated by Bertrand and Renault, which in general structure has much in common with Cordaiteae, but possesses strands of primary wood, mainly centripetal, at the (After Grand' Eury, modified.
The long, parallel-veined leaves of the Cordaiteae, which were commonly referred to Monocotyledons before their structure or connexion with other parts of the plant was known, have been shown by Renault to have essentially the same anatomy as a single leaflet of a Cycad such as Zamia.
12) is usually considered to be a Cycad, but the broad pinnae (or leaves) and their arrangement on the axis suggests a possible relationship with the southern coniferous genus Agathis, represented by the Kauri pine and other recent species.