They are propagated by cuttings, or from the leaves, which are cut off and pricked in welldrained pots of sandy soil, or by the scales from the underground tubes, which are rubbed off and sown like seeds, or by the seeds, which are very small.
It is from the actively growing callus developed at the surface of the wounded tissues of cuttings, buddings, prunings, &c., that the healing and .renewal of tissues occur of which advantage is taken in the practice of what might well be termed plant surgery.
Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.
Slips in cuttings or embankments18 23.
On the one hand he may make the line follow the natural inequalities of the ground as nearly as may be, avoiding the elevations and depressions by curves; or on the other he may aim at making it as nearly straight and level as possible by taking it through the elevations in cuttings or tunnels and across the depressions on embankments or bridges.
An endeavour is made so to plan the works of a railway that the quantity of earth excavated in cuttings shall be equal to the quantity required for the embankments; but this is not always practicable, and it is sometimes advantageous to obtain the earth from some source close to the embankment rather than incur the expense of hauling it from a distant cutting.
- When the earth-works of a line have been completed and the tops of the embankments and the bottoms of the cuttings brought to the level decided upon, the next step is to lay the permanent way, so-called probably in distinction to the temporary way used during construction.
Thus the gauge may be narrow, the line single, the rails lighter than those used in standard practice, while deep cuttings and high embankments may be avoided by permitting the curves to be sharper and the gradients steeper: such points conduce to cheapness of construction.
Cuttings are reduced to a minimum; and where the roads are sufficiently wide, the rails are laid on the margins.
Cuttings, if they have a single bud, strike readily.
On the margins of the plateau there are several gaps or indentations, which can best be likened to gigantic trenches, like railway cuttings, as with an insensible gradient they climb to a higher level.
Near the ferry are a row of long parallel cuttings in the rock, which must be remains of the ancient docks, each being intended to take a ship.
Of the stage nothing but cuttings in the rock for foundations are visible.
Cuttings in the rock for the foundations of such are numerous round the south edge of Temenites and Achradina, and are to be seen at various points near the city wall.
Surplus plants and cuttings are generally distributed without charge to educational or charitable institutions, and to the poor.
They are readily propagated from cuttings taken in the spring or at the end of the summer.
The plant is readily propagated by cuttings, a piece of the stem bearing buds at its nodes will root rapidly when placed in sufficiently moist ground.
In many parts of the country soils exhibiting such relationships, and known as sedentary soils, are prevalent, the transition from the soil to the rock beneath being plainly visible in sections exposed to view in railway cuttings, quarries and other excavations.
It is a small bush propagated from cuttings which are left to grow for three years; the leaves are then stripped, except a few buds which develop next year into young shoots, these being cut and sold in bunches under the name of khat mubarak; next year on the branches cut back new shoots grow; these are sold as khat malhani, or second-year kat, which commands the highest price.
In the province of Settsu granite everywhere predominates, which may be observed also in the railway cuttings between Hiogo and Osaka, as well as in the temples and walls of these towns.
The lines are single, for the most part; and as the embankments, the cuttings, the culverts and the bridge-piers have not been constructed for a double line, any change now would be very costly.
They are increased by cuttings, and grown in a cool greenhouse in rough peaty soil, with a slight addition of loam and sand.
Cuttings strike readily in spring before growth has commenced; they should be potted in 3-in.
Readily propagated by seeds, cuttings or divisions.
Ancient cuttings on the hills west of Bezwada have been held by some to mark the site of a Buddhist monastery; by others they are considered to have been quarries.
An interesting species of the last is the leaf-cutting ant (Eciton) which lives in large underground colonies and feeds upon a fungus produced by leaf-cuttings stored in subterranean passages to promote fermentation.
Cuttings of about 9 to 16 in.
The natives are in the habit of making holes in the aa, and planting in them banana shoots or sweet-potato cuttings, and though the holes are simply filled with stones or fern leaves, the plants grow and in due time are productive.
In some instances buds form on the roots, and may be used for purposes of propagation, as in the Japan quince, the globe thistle, the sea holly, some sea lavenders, Bocconia, Acanthus, &c. Of the tendency in buds to assume an independent existence gardeners avail themselves in the operations of striking " cuttings," and making " layers " and " pipings," as also in budding and grafting.
For some cuttings, pots filled with light soil, with the protection of the propagating-house and of bell-glasses, are requisite; but for many of our hardy deciduous trees and shrubs no such precautions are necessary, and the insertion of a short shoot about half its length into moist and gritty ground at the proper season suffices to ensure its growth.
In the case of the more delicate plants, the formation of roots is preceded by the production from the cambium of the cuttings of a succulent mass of tissue, the callus.
The most successful mode of forming roots is to place the cuttings in a mild bottom-heat, which expedites their growth, even in the case of many hardy plants whose cuttings strike roots in the open soil.
Cuttings of deciduous trees and shrubs succeed best if planted early in autumn while the soil still retains the solar heat absorbed during summer.
When removed from the plant and treated as cuttings or grafts, such sports may be perpetuated.
Sand is by itself of little value except for striking cuttings, for which purpose fine clean sharp silver sand is the best; and a somewhat coarser kind, if it is gritty, is to be preferred to the comminuted sands which contain a large proportion of earthy matter.
- Propagation by cuttings is the mode of increase most commonly adopted, next to that by seeds.
Cuttings should in all cases be taken from healthy plants, and from shoots of a moderate degree of vigour.
Young shoots which have become moderately firm generally make the best cuttings, but sometimes the very softest shoots strike more readily.
For all indoor plants in a growing state spring is a good time for taking cuttings, but at any time during the summer months is also favourable if cuttings are obtainable.
Cuttings of deciduous plants should be taken off after the fall of the leaf.
These cuttings should be about 6 in.
Gooseberries, currants, roses and many hardy 'deciduous trees and shrubs are easily propagated in this way if the cuttings are inserted in welldrained soil about the end of October or early in November.
Cuttings of growing plants are prepared by removing with a sharp knife, and moderately close, the few leaves which would otherwise be buried in the soil; they are then cut clean across just below a joint; the fewer the leaves thus removed, however, the better, as if kept from being exhausted they help to supply the elaborated sap out of which the roots are formed.
Hardy plants, such as pinks, pansies, &c., are propagated by cuttings planted a during early summer in light rich soil.
The root cuttings of rose-stocks are prepared and treated in a similar way.
By Cuttings of Single Eyes.
Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.
It clothes the chalk cuttings on some English railways with a sheet of colour in the blooming season.
Put plants of fuchsias, petunias, verbenas, heliotropes, salvias and other soft-wooded subjects, into a propagating house to obtain cuttings, &c., for the flower garden.
Propagate old roots of dahlias by cuttings of the young shoots in a hotbed.