Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword at the disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties with the Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 strong, but shortly after taking the field was obliged, by the defeat of Custozza, to flee to Switzerland.
On the outbreak of war in 1866 he assumed command of a volunteer army and, after the defeat of the Italian troops at Custozza, took the offensive in order to cover Brescia.
On the 23rd, 24th and 25th of July (first battle of Custozza) the Piedmontese were defeated and forced to retire on Milan with Radetzkys superior force in pursuit.
Soon after Custozza, however, the Veni~
Tuscany the government drifted from the moderates to the extreme democrats; the Ridolfi ministry was succeeded after Custozza by that of Ricasoli, and the latter by that of Capponi.
But so long as Piedmont was not completely crushed none of the princes dared to take decisive measures against their subjects; in spite of Custozza, Charles Albert still had an army, and Austria, with revolutions in Vienna, Hungary and Bohemia on her hands, could not intervene.
On the 23rd of June La Marmora crossed Minclo, and on the 24th a battle was fought at Custozza, ler circumstances highly disadvantageous to the Italians, ich after a stubborn contest ended in a crushing Austrian tory.
Custozza might have been afterwards retrieved,, for Italians had plenty of fresh troops besides Cialdinis army; nothing was done, as both the king and La Marraora believed situation to be much worse than it actually wa,s.
Custozza and Lissa were not Italys only misfortunes in i866.
Entering the army as lieutenant of artillery in 1857, he gained the medal for military valour at the battle of Custozza in 1866, and in 1870 commanded the brigade of artillery which battered the breach in the wall of Rome at Porta Pia.
Is Custozza, where the Italians were defeated by the Austrians in 1848 and 1866.
It was not, however, until the victory of Custozza (July 25) set free the army in Italy, that the Austrian government ventured on bolder measures.
Armee 1866 (Berlin, 1900); Harbauer, Trautenau, Custozza, Lissa (Leipzig, 1907); Kovalik, FZM von Benedek and der Krieg 1866 (see also article BENEDEK, LUDWIG, RITTER VON); Anon.
Radetzky, the Austrian general, having received reinforcements, drove the centre of the extended Italian line back across the Mincio (23rd of July), and in the two days' fighting at Custozza (24th and 25th of July) the Piedmontese were beaten, forced to retreat, and to ask for an armistice.
Entering the army as captain in 1859 he fought through the campaign of 1866 with the rank of major-general, leading his brigade into action at Custozza and being wounded at Monte Torre.
It was encouraged by the news from Italy, where, on the 25th of July, Radetzky had won the battle of Custozza, and on the 6th of August the Austrian standard once more floated over the towers of Milan.
At Custozza Magyar hussars, Croats from the Military Frontier, and Tirolese sharpshooters had fought side by side.