CUSH, the eldest son of Ham, in the Bible, from whom seems to have been derived the name of the "Land of Cush," commonly rendered "Ethiopia" by the Septuagint and by the Vulgate.
The locality of the land of Cush has long been a much-vexed question.
Others again, like Michaelis and Rosenmiiller, have supposed that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country both in Arabia and in Africa, but the defective condition of the ancient knowledge of countries and peoples, as also the probability of early migrations of "Cushite" tribes (carrying with them their name), will account for the main facts.
The existence of an African Cush cannot reasonably be questioned, though the term is employed in the Old Testament with some latitude.
The African Cush covers Upper Egypt, and extends southwards from the first cataract (Syene, Ezek.
7, where Cush is the "father" of certain tribal and ethnical designations, all of which point very clearly to Arabia, with the very doubtful exception of Seba, which Josephus (Ant.
Moreover, the Babylonian inscriptions mention the Kashshi, an Elamite race, whose name has been equated with the classical KoQaaiot, Kiauuot, and it has been held that this affords a more appropriate explanation of Cush (perhaps rather Kash), the ancestor of (the Babylonian) Nimrod in Gen.
Although decisive evidence is lacking, it seems extremely probable that several references to Cush in the Old Testament cannot refer to Ethiopia, despite the likelihood that considerable confusion existed in the minds of early writers.
With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.
Of the populations surrounding Egypt the negroes (Nehsi) in the south (Cush) were the lowest in the scale of civilization:~ the people of Puoni and of Libya (the Tehen, &c.) were pale in color and superior to the negroes, but still show no sign of a high culture.
Tethmosis thoroughly subdued Cush, which had already been placed under the government of a viceroy.
This province of Cush extended from Napata just below the Fourth Cataract on the south to El Kab in the north, so that it included the first three nomes of Upper Egypt, which agriculturally were not greatly superior to Nubia.
The confiscated revenues of Ammon and the tribute from Syria and Cush provided ample means for adorning Ekhaton (Akhetat on), the horizon of Aton, the new capital, and for richly rewarding those who adopted the Aton teaching fervently.
Dan, he declares, sooner than join in Jeroboam's scheme of an Israelite war against Judah, had migrated to Cush, and finally, with the help of Naphthali, Asher and Gad, had founded an independent Jewish kingdom in the Gold Land of Havila, beyond Abyssinia.